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science midterm

scientific theory a well supported explanation about nature
scientific law how something happens in nature under certain circumstances
Two types of scientific observation observations, experiment
observations go out into the field, watch stuff, take notes and pics (lion eating)
experiment do something, most of the time in a lab for controlled conditions (storm)
scientific method steps of an experiment: 1. Define problem/answer question 2.Form Hypothesis 3.Plan & gather supplies 4.Perform experiment 5.Record & analyze data 6.Conclusion (DFPPRC)
parts of an experiment 1. control group 2. variable (independent/dependent) 3. data
control group you know the outcome
variable something that changes in an experiment. Only supposed to be one thing
independent variable what YOU change in the experiment (size of rock)
dependent variable what was the OUTCOME (how far did the rock go)
data information you collected. Notes, pictures, info from experiments, measurements
repitition you must repeat your experiment more than once to make sure your results are the same
replication ask a friend or coworker to do a copy of your experiment to see if they got the same results as you did
organization of organisms 1. cells 2. tissue 3. organs 4. organ systems 5. organism
cell structure arrangement of parts in an organism. Determines the function
cell function activity or job it does in the organism
types of tissues animal or plant
animal tissue 1. nervous 2. epithelial 3. connective 4. muscle
plant tissue 1. transport 2. protective 3. ground
cell smallest unit of a living thing. cells are small due to limited surface area of the cell membrane. Their transportation process is not fast enough to go through a larger cell. cells must have a SURFACE TO VOLUME RATIO. smaller is better
organism is any living thing
cell theory- 3 basic characteristics of cells 1. all organisms are made up of one or more cells 2. the cell is the basic unit of living things 3. all cells come from existing cells
two types of cells prokaryote eukaryote
prokaryote single celled organism with NO nucleus, NO membrane bound organelles (ex: bacteria)
eukaryote contain DNA in a nucleus. YES nucleus, YES membrane bound organelles (ex: plants and animals)
all cells contain 1. DNA 2. cell membrane surrounding it 3. cytoplasm to fill the inside 4. organelles
cytoskeleton- parts of a eukaryote cell gives it shape and form
nucleus- parts of a eukaryote cell to hold the DNA
mitochondria - parts of a eukayote and plant cell used for cellular respirstion
ribosomes - parts of a eukayote and plant cell makes proteins and chains of amino acids
endoplasmic reticulum- parts of a eukayote and plant cell production, processing and transport of proteins and lipids
golgi complex - parts of a eukayote and plant cell makes vesicles or packages to distribute materials around the cell
cell wall - parts of a plant cell rigid structure that surrounds the outer cell membrane
large central vacuole - parts of a plant cell stores water, nutrients and waste. Supports the cell
chloroplasts - parts of a plant cell organelles where photosynthesis takes place to get energy from the sun
animal cell*** animal cells have one additional organelle called lysosomes. It uses digestive enzymes to break down old or malfunctioning cells
homeostasis maintaining a constant internal state in a changing environment. Ways to do this... 1. shivering 2. trees lose their leaves 3. reptiles lay in the sun 4. animals hibernate
photosynthesis - cells get energy plants, algae and bacteria
photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light Energy --> C6H12O(sugar) + 6O2
cellular respiration - cells get energy animals and plants
producer - organisms need energy to live they make their own food EX- plants
consumers - organisms need energy to live they must eat or consume other living things EX- people
decomposers - organisms need energy to live they break down dead organisms or waste to get nutrients EX - fungi
how plant cells make food plants use photosynthesis to make energy in organelles called chloroplasts. Energy is captured from the sun along with water and carbon dioxide to form a sugar glucose and leftover oxygen that is released
how cells get energy from food when sugar is broken down, energy is released as ATP. This process is called cellular respiration. It takes place in the organelle called mitochondria. Animal cells release carbon dioxide ****Cells divide for reproduction, growth and repair
Mitosis cell division genetic material in a cell is called DNA. It exists on chromatin. Before cell division DNA is copied and stored onto a chromosome. The chromosome consists of two chromatids stuck together with the center called a centromere
Steps of Mitosis 1. interphase - cells grows, copies the DNA 2. mitosis - the nucleus divides and separates. (4 mini phases) A. prophase B. metaphase C. anaphase D. telophase 3. cytokinesis - cell membranes pinches itself into two cells
Meiosis cell division sex cells also known as gametes contain half the number of chromosomes needed to produce an offspring. They are knowns as haploid cells. Males produce sperm cells (XY) females produce egg cells (XX).
Meiosis cell division Cells with a pair of every chromosome are called diploid cells. When male and female sex cells join together it is called fertilization. A new diploid cell is formed with 46 chromosomes. That cell is called a zygote.
steps of meiosis 1. meiosis I - has 4 mini stages
steps of meiosis - 4 mini stages of meiosis I A.prophase I- chromosomes are copied B. metaphase I- nucleus breaks down and chromosomes line up in the middle C. anaphase I- chromosomes separate from their partners and move to the opposite sides D.telophase I and cytokinesis - cell divides into 4 cells
steps of meiosis 2. meiosis II - has 4 mini stages
steps of meiosis - 4 mini stages of meiosis II A.prophaseII-chromosomes are NOT copied again and the nucleus breaks down B.metaphaseII-chromosomes line up in the middle C.anaphaseII-chromosomes separate from there partners and move to opposite sides D.telophaseII &cytokinesis-cell divides into 4 cells
Asexual reproduction 1 organism produces one or more new organisms that are identical to itself. Mostly single celled organisms.
Asexual reproduction 1. binary fission - parent cell splits in 2. mitosis 2. budding - tiny buds develop on the parents body 3. spores - specialized cell that is light and can stand harsh conditions 4. vegetative reproduction- plants can grow from stems, roots, or leaves. EX
sexual reproduction 2 parents each contribute sex cells the organism. Happens to multi-cellular organisms. The offspring is NOT identical to the parents. Meiosis
pedigree can trace the occurrence of a trait through generations of a family. Very helpful tracking sex linked disorders. Ex: Hemophilia and colorblindness
Created by: ineyhart