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physical science

physical science semester 1 study guide

The change of the physical state of matter from liquid to solid freezing
The change of the physical state of matter from solid to liquid melting
Highly ionized (charged) gasses that exist at high temperatures plasma
The amount of matter contained in an object mass
The change of the physical state of matter form a liquid to a gas evaporation
The state of matter with a definite volume and shape solid
measure of increasing kinetic energy from solid to liquid to gas temperature
A type of matter with a fixed composition pure substance
Simplest form of a pure substance; cannot be changed in to simpler substances by heating or by any chemical process element
Pure substance made up of more than one element; always have the same ratio compound
Two or more atoms chemically bonded together; make up most compounds molecule
Matter that consists of two or more substances mixed together but are not chemically combined mixture
A mixture that does not appear to be the same throughout Heterogeneous
mixture that contains two or more gaseous, liquid, or solid substances blended evenly throughout homogeneous
Another name for a liquid homogeneous mixture solution
Atoms are most stable when they have a _____________ outermost energy level full/ complete
A substance made of atoms of different elements bonded together in a certain ratio compound
An atom that has gained or lost one or more electron Ion
An atom that has gained or lost one or more neutrons Isotope
Bond that forms between oppositely charged Ions Ionic bond
Proposed that matter was composed of tiny indivisible particles; "atoms" democritus
Bond that forms when atoms share a pair of electrons covalent bond
What indicates the relative size and energy of atomic orbitals principal quantum number
The name for the atom's major energy levels principal energy levels
Four sub-levels of electron energy levels S,P,D,orF
Contained within the principal energy levels energy sub-levels
Formula for determining the number of electrons in a specific energy level 2n^2
rule that states that no more than 2 electrons may be found in the same orbital Paul excursion principle
The arrangement of electrons in the atom is called the electron configuration
States that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available Aufbau principle
shows elements in a compound and ratio of their atoms chemical formula
Strong attractive force between atoms or ions in a molecule or compound chemical bond
Chemical bonds are formed by doing what to electrons Sharing or transferring electrons
What rule is defined as most atoms forming bonds in order to have a full outer energy level octet rule
Driving force behind bond formation stability
what group of elements do the other elements try to become when completing their outer energy levels noble gases
A change in which one or more substance are converted to different substances chemical reaction
Combination of 2 or more substances to form a compound; only one product forms synthesis
A compound breaks down into 2 or more simpler substances; only one reactant decomposition
One element replaces another in a compund single replacement
Ions in two compounds "change partners" double replacement
Burning of a substance in oxygen to produce heat combustion
Reaction that releases energy Exothermic
Reaction that absorbs energy endothermic
What states that during a chemical reaction, matter cannot be created or destroyed Law of Conservation of Matter
Which scientist created the Law of Conservation of Matter Antoine Lavisier
What does the arrow in a chemical reaction indicate direction of chemical change
Which number shows the number of atoms in each molecule subscripts
Which number shows the number of molecules coefficient
Any characteristic of a material that you can observe without changing the identity of the substances that make up the material physical property
Created by: kiyaingram