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anatomy vanier rt

hematocrit in males 47% +-5
hematocrit in females 42%+-5
hematocrit blood fraction (eruthrocite/blood)
plasma 55% of whole blood
buffy coat leukocyte and platelets , 1%
distribution of blood deliver oxygen, transport metabolic waste, transport hormones
regulation maintain appropriate body temperature, maintain normal pH in body tissues, maintain adequate fluid volume
protection prevent blood loss(platelets,plasma protein), prevent infection (antibodies)
albumin 60% of plasma protein. act as carrier to shuttle some molecules thru the circulation (blood buffer), main contribute to osmotic pressure
electrolytes cation: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, anion: chloride, Phosphates, sulfate, bicarbonate, help to maintainplasma osmotic pressure and pH
plasma proteins 8% osmotic pressure and water balance. produce by liver
globulins 36% plasma membrane; alpha, beta: transport protein for lipids, metal ions, and fat-soluble vitamimns;gamma: antibodies
fibrinogen: 4% plasma membranes. form fibrin threads of blood clot
nonprotein nitrogenous substances by-product of cellular metabolism, such as urea, uric acid, creatinine, aluminium salts
hemorrgagic anemia caused by blood loss
spectrin network of protein allowing erythrocyte to chnge shape
hemoglobin consist of globin (2 alpha ,2 beta polypeptide chains) and 4 heme groups(Iron)
CO2 binding 20% of CO2 transported by blood. bind to hemoglobin's amino acids
hematopoiesis blood cell formation, occurs in red bone marrow
erythropoesis stages myeloid stem cell-proerythroblast-basophilic erythroblast-polycheomatic erythroblast-orthochromatic erythroblast-reticulocyte-erythrocyte
Erythroprotein(EPO) stimulate formation oof erythrocytes.Produce by kidnay
Renal dialysis for patient whose kidneys failed producing enough EPO. Genetically engineered EPO help these pt
EPO abuse in athelets (blood doping) injecting EPO, increase hematocrit from 45% to 65%, with dehydration, can cause clotting, stroke and heart failure
EPO in cancer patient improve hematocrit, reduce blood transfusion requirements, and enhance the quality of life of cancer patients suffering from anemia
name of iron store inside the cells ferritin and hemosiderini
transferrin transport iron, and develop erythrocyte
lifespan of RBC 100-120 days goes to spleen
balance of heme groupp degrades into bilirubin
hemolytic anemia hemoglobin is not normal; rupture or lyse prematurely
Thalassemias Mediterranean ancestry:one of globin chain is abscent of faulty: erythrocyte thin delicate and deficient
sickle-cell anemia abnormal hemoglobin HbS, crescent shape. Rupture easily. Black people in malaria belt
polythermia vera bone marrow cancer, increase hemotocrit
secondary polycythemia less oxygen available, EPO production increases. occurs in high altitude habitants
amoeboid motion form flowing cytoplasmic extensionsthat move the WBC along
positive chemotaxis pinpoints area of damage or infection and gather there in large number to destroy
leukocytosis normal homeostatic response in an infection in the body. WBC > 11000
Granulocyte include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Sphere, larger, shorter lived. all phagocyte (never eat bananas)
neutrophils multiple nucleus;phagocyte bacteria
Eosinophils looks like telephone;kill parasitic ;Plays complex roles in allergy.
Basophil contain histamine that acts as vaso dilators and other mediators of inflammation. contains heparin: anticoagulants
lymphocyte mostly in lymphoid system;T-lymphocyte: acting against virus infecting cells; B lymphocyte produce antibodies
Monocytes Develp into macrophages, monocytes do the job of phagocytosis (cell-eating) of any type of dead cell and foreign particles in the body
leukopenia low WBC usually caused by drugs
leukemias cancer : overproduction of abnormal WBC. Acute in children, chronic in eldery
mononucleiosis excessive agranulocyte, no cure, rest and recover
platelets cytoplasmic fragment of megakaryocytes; essential for clotting process, form temporary plug. Die in 10 day if no clotting
thrombopoietin regulates production of platelets
hemostasis stop bleeding: 1. vascular spasm( contraction);2. platelets plug formation;3. coagulationn (blood clotting)
coaguation fibrin form a mesh that traps red blood cell and platelets, forming the clot
pernicious anemia autoimmune disease; destroys stomach mucosa; lack B12
leukopoeisis lymphoid stem cells-myeloid stem cell-myeloblasts-promyelocyte-myelocyte-band cell
fibrinolysis removed uneeded clot whn healing occurs (plasmin)
factors limiting normal clot growth swift removal of clotting factors; inhibition of activated clotting factors;restrict thrombin to clot or inactivate it (antithrombin III, Heparin)
factors preventing undesirable clotting endothelium smooth and intact: no clotting; antithrombic substances and Vit E quinone
thromboembolic disorder cause undisirable clot formation
thrombocytopenia number of platelets in deficient. symptoms: purple spot
impaired liver function Vitamin K deficiency- liver failure: unable to supply enough clotting factors
Hemophilas genetic disorder;blood doesn't clot normally because it lacks sufficient blood-clotting proteins (clotting factors)
AB have antigen/agglutinogen A&B; no antibodies/agglutinins
Rh- woman carrying Rh+ child first time antibodeis not formed yet. bleeding occurs during carriage, form baby;s rH antibody that will transfer to the second child blood; cause hemolytic desease of the newborn
transfuion reaction cause agglutination and hemolysis( RBC lyses) transfered blood cannot carry oxygen; hinder blood flow