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Human Growth & Dev.

Frued: Psychoanalytic Theory Basic Assumptions: deterministic, biological forces drive development; determined by irrational & unconscious drives; intsticts are central focus of theory; personality charateristics are appear in childhood
3 Levels of Awareness know as typological concept: 1) conscious mind 2)Preconscious mind 3) Unconscious mind
Conscious Mind info is easily accessible; info in immediate awareness
Preconscious Mind info can be easily made conscious; may take a little time to retrieve info but can eventually be remembered
Unconscious Mind thoughts, feelings, etc is difficulty to bring to conscious; repressed material, out of awareness
Aim of Therapy: Awareness Make Unconscious become Conscious; UNC root of all forms of neurotic symptions and behaviors
2 Basic Instincts 1) Eros 2) Thantos
Eros "Life instincts" consists of biological urges; eg: hunger, thrist, physical comfort, sex, etc
Thantos "Death Instincts" destructive energy; aggressive dirves that manifest through UNC wish to die or hurt self or others; self destructive; major challenge to manage aggressive drive
Libido orginally referred to as sexual energy; broadened to include engergy of ALL LIFE INSTINCTS; goal of gaining pleasure and avoiding pain; serves purpose to survive
3 Structures of Personality 1) ID 2) EGO 3) SUPER EGO (not separate inttities but distinct psychological processes)
Id (biological) UNC; illogical/amoral; instant gratification, cannot tolerate tension; pleasure principle occurs
Pleasure Principle aimed at reducing tension and avoiding pain; all about gaining pleasure
Ego (Psycological) CON; governs control & regulates personality; mediates b/t instincts and environment; realistic & logical; reality principle exists
Reality Principle Ego has a plan of action to satisfy needs; mediator b/t Id and Super Ego; postpones gratification
Super Ego (Social) Pre Con; judicial branch of personality; moral code; concerned with action of being good or bad, etc; represents ideal & strives for perfections; internalization of parents/society; punishment & guilt
5 Stages of Psychosexual Development 1) Oral 2) Anal 3) Phallic 4) Latency 5) Genital
1) Oral Stage (birth-18 months) Focus is on mouth; difficulties in this stage can be seen in behaviors such as smoking, drinking, sarcasm, aggressiveness
2) Anal Stage (18-36 months) focus is on the anus; difficulties in this stage present themselves in being overly rigid or orderly, stinginess, obstanate behavior, extreme messiness, etc
3) Phallic Stage (3-6 yrs) focus on genitials; Oedipus complex in boys & Electra complex in girls; difficulties in this stage result in promiscuity, vanity, flirtatiousness, or extreme modesty or timidity
Oedipus Complex and Electra Complex Oedipus complex - boys unc. wish to kill their fathers to be with their mothers; Electra complex - girls unc. desire to kill mother to be with their fathers
4) Latency Stage (6-12 yrs) focus not on any specific body part and is considered a dormant stage of development; difficulties in this stage result in repressed sexuality or limited social connection
5)Genital Stage (12+ and adulthood) focus on the genitals; difficulties in later life are seen by inability to form intimate relathionships with others
Neo Freudians: Psychoanalytic Theory Carl Jung, Karen Horney, Alfred Adler
Neo Freudian View considered part of psychoanalytic theory; departed from Freud due to pessmistic view; disagreed that personalilty was determined by early childhood; disagreed w/ belief that behavior was primarily motivated by sexual urges
Focus of Psychoanylitic Therapy 1. Make unconscious repressed memories conscious; 2. Working through memories in cathartic manner and gaining insight; 3. Gain insigth to be more mature personality & have ability to form intimate relationships; successful development "work & love"
Key Concepts in the theraputic relationship 1. Transference 2. Countertransference
Transference Unconscious projections of the client's history onto the therapist
Countertransference Unconscious projections of the therapist's history onto the client
Key psychoanalytic techniques 1. Free association 2. Interpretation of dreams 3. Idenfication of ego defenses 4. Making the unconscios conscious 5. Analysis of the theaputic relationship (transference reaction, etc)
Anxiety Anxiety is a major concept in psychoanalysis; anxiety motivate the ego to take action or else the ego will be overthrown; creates a sense of tension to take action; ego defense mechanisms are created as a way to ward off anxiety
Defense Mechanisms tatic developed by the ego to protect against anxiety; way to guard thoughts and feelings that are too difficult to deal with
Denial firm belief that an occurence did not happen; one of the most primitive defenses
Displacement direct focus to a object or person rather than the original cause of anger or aggression; yell at child b/c angry at boss
Introjection individual internalized the aspects or characteristics of another as a way of warding off loss or a significant individual in his/her life
Intellectualization using logic or intellect to distance oneself from the emotional aspects of a situation
Projection attributing unacceptable characteristics of the self onto others
Rationalization creation of inaccurate excuses to justify one's behavior or beliefs
Reaction formation way of denying unacceptable feelings or beliefs, the individual acts in an opposite manner
Regression individual retreats to an earlier form of development and behaves in a manner that is not reflective of current developmental stage; considered most primitive or simplist ego defense mechanism
Carl Jung: Analytical Psychology rejected Freud's belief that behavior was motivated by instictual drive of sex & aggression; believed people are motivated by a general psychological energy that pushes them to acheive psychological growth throughout lift time
3 Structures of Personality 1) Ego 2) Collective Unconscious 3) Conscious
Ego complex of conscious ideas that constitutes the center of one's awareness; consciousness
Collective Unconscious deepest part of individual psyche; shared by all people and reflects humanity's collective history; store house of ancestrial past
Personal Unconscious contain material from personal experience that is no longer (or not yet) at the level of awareness; forgotten memories
Archetypes universal thought inherited from past generations; part of collective UNC; mental images of human insticts, part of religion, dreams, myths, fables, folklore, etc
Common Archetypes Anima, Animus, Shadow, Persona
Anima female archetype in man; predispose man to understand nature of woman; feminine aspects; part of collective UNC
Animus male archetype in woman; predispose woman to understand nature of man; masculine aspects; part of collective UNC
Shadow "Dark Side" unwelcome side of personality; consist of repressed material; commonly projected onto others in indirect fashion; eg - Dr Jeckle, Mr Hyde; part of personal UNC
Persona outward face of personality - mask; protective facade disigned to meet demands of society while concealing one's true inner feelings; part of collective UNC
Jung - Theory of Personality psyche is made up of conscious and unconscious components of collective UNC; each person also has a personal UNC
2 Aspects of Human Psyche 1) Accessible: Conscious - senses, emotions, intelligence, desire, etc. 2) Inaccessible: Unconscious - elements of personal experience forgotton or denied
Development of Personality No formal stages of development; development begins later in life; process of differentiation; "Second Puberty" begins in mid life - shift from materialism to more spiritual/cultural values
Individuation lifelong unfolding of one's inherent potential; unique self develops
Self represents the ultimate goal of personality; self become differentiated; self realization or selfhood
Typology of Personality 1) Introverson 2) Extroversion
Created by: mchay444