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CIN100

for CIN 100 college course

TermDefinition
Narration a cinema structure which content is selected and arranged in a cause and effect sequence of events, occurring over time
Story the events of the plot reorganized into linear time
Plot narrative events reorganized in the order that they are told
Scene a segment in a narrative film that takes place in a unified time and place
Sequence a series of scenes that form a distinctive narrative unit
Narration the process by which the plot conveys or withholds story information
Diegesis the narrative world of a film, including off screen and the action that takes place within
Motif an element in a film that is repeated in a significant way
Flashback a scene or sequence showing events that have taken place earlier than the story’s present
Flash Forward a scene of sequence showing events that haven’t occur yet
Narrative Linearity the clear motivation of a series of cause and effect that progress without significant digressions, delays, or irrelevant actions
Narrative Unity the degree to which a film’s parts relate systematically to each other and provide motivations for all the elements included
Ellipsis the shortening of plot duration achieved by omitting some story duration (i.e., Jump Cut)
Mise-en scene “Putting into scene”; the elements placed in front of the camera to be photographed. (setting, props, lighting, costumes, makeup, staging, and performance)
Hard Lighting illumination that creates sharp edged shadows
Soft Lighting illumination that avoids harsh bright and dark areas, creating a gradual transition from highlights to shadows
Frontal Lighting illumination directed into the scene from a position near the camera
Back Lighting illumination cast onto the characters in the scene from the side opposite the camera, usually creating a thin outline of highlighting on those characters
Sidelighting lighting coming from one side of a person or an object, usually to create a scene of volume, to bring out surface tensions, or to fill in areas left shadowed by light from another source
Top Lighting lighting coming from above a person or an object, usually to outline the upper areas of the figure or to separate it more clearly from the background
Underlighting illumination from a point below the figures in the scene
Key Light the brightest illumination coming from above a person or an object, usually to create a scene of volume, to bring out surface tensions, or to fill in areas left shadowed by light from another source
Fill Light illumination from a source less bright than the key light, used to soften deep shadows in a scene
Backlighting Illumination coming from behind or above the figure being soften deep shadows in a scene
Filter a piece of glass or gelatin placed in front of the camera or printer lens to alter the quality or quality of light reaching the film/digital sensor (think instagram or snapchat apps)
3-Point lighting an arrangement of key, fill and back lighting which serves to model a character while maintaining an even illumination in the shot
High-key lighting illuminations that create comparatively little differences between the light and dark areas of the shot
Low-key lighting illumination that creates a strong difference between the light and dark areas of the shot (With deep shadows and little fill light)
Shallow Space Staging the action in relatively few planes of depth
Multi-Plane comparison events that are staged simultaneously in the foreground and/or middle ground and/or background of a shot
Deep Space Mise-en-scene in which there is a large distance between the foreground plane and the background plane of a shot
High-key lighting key lighting refers to the illumination that creates a strong difference between light and dark areas of the shot
Cinematography "writing in movement" A general term for all the manipulations of the film strip or digital hard drive by the camera in the shooting and developing phase of production
Shot one uninterrupted image taken by a static or mobile camera
Exposure the adjustment of the camera mechanism in order to control how much light strikes the digital sensors or film stock
Focal Legth the distance from the camera of the lens to the point of which the light rays meet in sharp focus
Wide-angle lens (short focal lens) a lens of 35mm length or less
Telephoto lens (long focal lens) a lens of 75mm length or more
Depth of Field the distance between the foreground and background of a shot that is in sharp focus
Shallow focus a restricted depth of field, which keeps only one plane in sharp focus
Deep focus the use of camera lens and lighting to keep both the foreground plane and the background plane of a shot in sharp focus
Soft focus An image, often created by a special lens, that is recognizable but somewhat blurred or diffused
Racking focus Shifting the area of sharp focus from one plane to another during a shot
Zoom a gradual change in the size of an image and the relative distances between its foreground and background planes caused by the adjustment of a lens with variable focal length
Framing the organization of the contents of the shot with respect to the edges of the image
Off-Screen Space the six areas blocked from being visible on the screen but still part of the space of the scene; left of the frame, right of the frame, behind the camera, behind the set, above the frame and below the frame
Canted Framing a slanting of the axis of the camera relative to the horizontal axis of the mise-en-scene, which causes the mise-en-scene to look tilted
Open Framing Framing in which the space of the mise-en-scene appears detached from surrounding off screen space ("Spy Kids")
Closed Framing Framing in which the space of the mise-en-scene appears detached from surrounding off screen space
1. Straight-On Shot: view level with the horizon of the mise-en-scene 2. High Angle: view looking down on the mise-en-scene 3. Low Angle: view looking up at the mise-en-scene 4. Overhead Shot: view from above mise-en-scene Four Types of Camera Angles
1. Extr. Close Up: small object or part of body 2. Close Up: head shot 3. Medium Close Up: head to chest 4. Medium Shot: head to waist 5. Full Shot/Medium Long Shot: full body shot 6. Long Shot: shot of landscape 7. Extr. Long Shot: city skyline Seven Types of Camera Distances
1. Pan: camera swivels on a horizontal axis 2. Whip Pan (Swish): a pan/ camera moves quickly 3. Tilt: camera swivels up and down 4. Tracking Shot (Dolly): camera moves through space/wheel supported 5. Crane Shot: the camera appears to move freely Five Types of Camera Movement
1. Establishing Shot: (usually @ beginning) complete view 2. Single Shot: shot w/ 1 characters 3. Two Shot: shot w/ 2 chara. 4. Over the Shoulder TWO Shot: O.T.S w/ 2 chara. 5. POV Shot: axis of character's look 6. Following Shot: moving w/ chara. Six Types of Shot Types
Superimposition the exposure of more than one image in the same shot
Matte Shot a type of shot in which different areas of the images (usually actors and setting) are photographed separately and combined in laboratory work
Rear Projection a technique for combining a foreground action with a background action filmed earlier
Stop Motion a filming technique in which objects (such as clay models) are photographed in a series of slightly different position so that the objects seem to move
Editing the joining of two or more shots in sequence
Long Take (Sequence Shot) a continuous shot of a scene that takes the place of editing within the scene (of longer than "normal" duration)
Cut an instantaneous transition from one shot to another
Fade In/Fade Out (Editing Transition) a shot transition in which the image gradually disappears from view, usually to black
Dissolve (Editing Transition) a shot transition in which a fade out is superimposed on a fade in
Wipe (Editing Transition) a shot transition in which one image gradually takes the place of another through a horizontal, vertical or diagonal movement across the screen, while both images remain discreet
Continuity Editing a system of editing in which the spatial and temporal relationships between shots are matched in order to ensure a clear and continuous line of narrative action
Parallel Editing (Cross Cutting) Editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places, usually simultaneously
Analytical Editing A cut in during a scene to highlight a closer view of the same space
Contiguity Editing Cutting from one space to an adjacent one, maintaining consistent screen direction and temporal continuity
180-degree Rule the camera must stay on the same side of the narrative action in order to ensure consistent spatial relations and constant screen direction from shot to shot
Axis of Action the imaginary line that passes from side
Reaction Shot a shot in which a character in a film responds to events presented in another shot
Shot/Reverse Shot Editing the alternation of shots of two people in conversation
Eyeline Match a cut linking a shot of a figure looking off-screen and a shot of what the figure is looking at
Match on Action a cut that shifts the framing of an action between two shots by picking up movement in one shot, at the exact moment it breaks off, in second shot, thereby making of the action seem continuous
Discontinuity Editing any alternative system of joining shots together using techniques unacceptable within continuity editing principles
Montage Editing a form of editing which emphasizes the graphic, rhythmic and conceptual relationships between shots
Summational: summarizes a topic into a symbolic image Associated: suggest similarities, contrasts and concepts not present Abstract: relates things together through repetition Three Types of Montage Editing
Graphic Match two successive shots whose compositional elements are similar
Non diegetic Insert a shot (or series of shots) cut into a sequence, showing objects that are represented as being outside the world of the narrative
Overlapping Editing cuts that repeat part or all of an action, thus expanding its viewing time and plot duration
Elliptical Editing Shot transitions that omit parts of an event, causing an ellipsis in plot duration
Jump Cut an elliptical cut that appears to be the interruption of a single shot
Direct Sound sound recorded at the moment of filming
Postsynchronized Sound sound that is added to the film after shooting (dubbing, postsync sound effects etc.)
Fidelity the faithfulness or unfaithfulness of sound to its source
Synchronous Sound sound that comes from a source apparent to the image and is precisely matched
Asynchronous Sound sound that comes from a source apparent in the image but is NOT precisely matched
Diegetic Sound Sound that comes from within the narrative world of a film (included off-screen sound)
Internal: comes from the mind of a character and can not be heard by other characters (i.e., internal thoughts) External: comes from inside the narrative world that can be heard by others (i.e., a car alarm) Two Types of Diegetic Sound
Non-Diegetic Sound sound that comes from outside the narrative world
Voiceover a voice that comments upon the images on the screen (can be either diegetic of non-diegetic
Sound Bridge sound derived from one scene that briefly carries over to another scene
Sound Match two successive shots whose sound elements, though not identical, are similar
Sound Perspective the scene of sound's position in space, determined by volume, timbre, pitch, and, in stereophonic systems, binaural information
Musical Score non-diegetic music that is typically composed and recorded specifically for use in a particular film, and is used to convey or enhance meaning and emotion
Soundtrack 1. all sounds recorded on a motion-picture film, including score, pre-recorded songs, dialogue, sound effects, etc 2. the collection of prerecorded songs featured in the film
Created by: 1529722033721744