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AP Psychology

semester exam study questions

To help stimulate their memory, to whom would the ancient Greeks have prayed? Mnemosyne
Which personality type is most associated with blood (humor)? sanguine (healthy)
Which personality type is most associated with yellow bile (humor)? choleric (bilious and negative)
Which personality type is most associated with black bile (humor)? melancholy (sadness)
Which personality type is most associated with phlegm (humor)? phlegmatic (lazy and unmotivated)
Who suggested that animal spirits flow through the nerves and produce body movements Descartes
Francis Bacon is mostly associated with: empiricism
Who coined the term "tabula rasa" (blank slate) to help explain the impact that experience has on shaping the individual John Locke
Argued against dividing human thought and behavior into particular structures; instead believed that the whole experience is much greater than just the sum of the parts; Gestalt psychology Max Wertheimer
Set up the first psychological laboratory in an apartment near Leipzig, Germany. He was a structuralist and trained subjects in introspection. Wilhelm Wundt
First woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology. Developed "motor theory." Margaret Floy Washburn
First American psychology educator; functionalist; wrote the first psychology textbook, "The Principles of Psychology." John Watson
Proposed that a person must examine the unconscious mind through activities like dream analysis, word association, and psychoanalysis if we want to understand human behavior; psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud
Student of William James and first female president of the APA; completed her studies at Harvard but denied her Ph.D. Mary Whiton Calkins
Conducted "Little Albert" experiment; strict behaviorist; declared that psychology must limit itself to observable phenomena, not unobservable concepts like the unconscious mind. John Watson 7ujjm
Psychology is the best defined as the scientific study of: behavior and mental processes
Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of: healthy growth potential
Arguments as to whether psychological differences between men and women result from biological or social influences most clearly involve a debate over the issue of: nature versus nurture
Betsy works in a human resources department. She plans training sessions, recruits people to work for the company, and implements techniques to boost morale around the office. Of the following, Betsy is most likely a(n): industrial-organizational psychologist
Clark studies the interaction of people, machines, and physical environments. He is most likely a: human factors psychologist
Delta has spent her entire life studying the way that chimps solve problems. She is most likely a: cognitive psychologist
Eduardo frequently testifies in court about defendants' states of mind. He is most likely a: forensic psychologist
A scientist's willingness to admit that she is wrong is an example of: humility
Which of the following is NOT an ethical principle regarding research on humans? researchers must be completely honest with the participants about the purpose of their study
Which of the following is a potential problem with case studies? they may e misleading because they don't fairly represent other cases
Which descriptive statistic would a researcher use to describe how close a student's SAT score is to a school's average SAT score? standard deviation
Which method should a psychology researcher use if she is interested in testing whether a specific reward in a classroom situation causes students to behave better? experiment
When a distribution of scores is skewed, which of the following measures of central tendency is most affected? mean
Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship between two variables -0.85
In general, this statement is true: "The longer that man is married, the more hair he loses." Which of the following statements is true There is a positive correlation between length of marriage and hair loss
Which of the following is used only in correlation studies: scatterplot
Which of the following is a measure of variation range
Descriptive statistics ____________, while inferential statistics _______________. Summarize data; determine if data can be generalized to other populations
In a normal distribution, what percentage of scores fall within +/- one standard deviation 68%
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a normal curve About 95% of all of the scores fall within one standard deviation on both sides of the mean
You decide to test your belief that boys drink more soft drinks than girls by finding out whether boys consume more soft drinks per day in the cafeteria than girls do. Your belief is a(n) ________ and your research prediction is a(n) __________. hypothesis; theory
Which of the following best describes hindsight bias events seem more predictable after they have occurred
To study the effects of lightning on the mood, Dr. Cooper had students fill out questionnaires in brightly lit or dimly lit rooms. In this study, the independent variable consisted of: the room lighting
What is the mode of the following: 2, 2, 4, 4, 4, 14 4
What is the mean of the following distribution of scores: 2, 5, 8, 10, 11, 4, 6, 9, 1, 4 6
What is the median of the following distribution: 10, 7, 5, 11, 8, 6, 9 8
What is the range of the following distribution: 12,5, 13, 9, 8, 9, 14, 5, 4, 12 10
Martina believes that high doses of caffeine slow a person's reaction time. To test this belief, she had five friends each drink (3) 8 oz cups of coffee and then measures their reaction time on a learning task. What is wrong with her strategy? there is no control condition
Ms. Potts was interested in determining whether he students' test performance could be predicted from their proximity to the front of the classroom. So she matched her students' scores on a math test with their seating position. This is an example of: correlational research
If eating fat and the likelihood of contract cancer are positively correlated, which of the following is true? none of the statements are necessarily true
The football's team's punter wants to determine how consistent his punting distances have been during the past season. He should compute the: standard deviation
In a neural chain, which part of the neuron will transmit information to the next cell? axon
The nucleus of a neuron is located in the cell body
The primary function of dendrites is to receive incoming information
Before the age of three, the brain has a greater physical capacity for modification and change. This is called plasticity
What is the correct route a message takes within a neuron? Dendrite, cell body, axon
When a neuron is at its resting state, what is the status of the charges on each side of the cell membrane? There is a negative charge on the inside of the cell membrane and a positive charge on the outside.
Uncle Manny had Parkinson's disease, suffering from muscular rigidity and tremors. He had low levels of which neurotransmitter? Dopamine
If you were a neurologist and wanted to study a patient who presented with symptoms of bipolar disorder consisting of alternating episodes of mania and depression, which of the neurotransmitters might you first examine? Serotonin Norepinephrine
What neurotransmitter plays an important role in human bonding? Oxytocin
The neuron's cell membrane permits some substances to pass through but not others; this is because the membrane is semipermeable
Most ________lie between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another. synapses
The terms somatic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system are best associated with the peripheral nervous system
Low levels of which neurotransmitter is most directly associated with depression? Serotonin
If a doctor told you that insufficient nutrients were being transported from your blood vessels to your neurons, you might suspect that the problem was in your glial cells
A neurologist says that your aunt has a condition affecting her central nervous system. Your uncle is not sure what that means and you tell him that the problem could be anywhere in the brain or spinal cord
You are listening to a lecture. Then the bell rings in the hallway. When you hear these stimuli, it is ______ neurons that carry electrochemical messages from your ears to your brain. afferent
The lecture you were listening to is over. The bell that rang in the hall signaled the end of class. You get out of your seat and walk out the classroom door. Which kind of nerves sent the signals from your brain to initiate your physical movements? Efferent
Which division of the nervous system is composed of all the nerves that are not part of the brain and spinal cord? The peripheral nervous system
Essential body functions such as heartbeat, breathing, digestion, sweating, and sexual arousal are under the control of the autonomic nervous system
Which of the following are the two integrated parts of the autonomic nervous system? Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
If you are in a very stressful situation (bear chase) and you experience an increase in heart rate, a dilation of your eyes, and an increase in your breathing rate, you know that your ______ nervous system is primarily responsible for these operations. sympathetic
You're in a place by a person you like. Their hand touches yours. You move your hand in return. Your heart beats faster and you feel butterflies. The hand movement was your __ nervous system. The heart rate/butterflies were your ___ nervous system somatic; autonomic
Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for physiological symptoms such as increased heart rate and butterflies in the stomach? Sympathetic
Your somatic nervous system, which includes motor nerves, is ____________ in nature, while your autonomic nervous system, which communicates with your internal organs, is voluntary; involuntary
Your brain has instructed your body muscles to move so that you avoid an oncoming bicyclist. Which division of the nervous system carried the information to your muscles? Somatic nervous system
An action potential is a brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon. The action potential causes a change in _____ potential as it moves along the axon. The movements of Na and K ____ in and out of the axon cause the changes. electrical; ions
You walk to class, and don't have to think about how to walk. When you get there you pay attention to the lecture but it's boring and you're tired. What plays an important role in keeping you focused by manipulation of various neurotransmitters? reticular formation
If a person's cerebellum was damaged in an accident, you would expect the person to have a problem with balance and muscle coordination
A person who walks in a jerky, uncoordinated way may well have a disorder involving the cerebellum
Which part of the nervous system regulates breathing? medulla
At the base of the brain is the __________which contains the medulla and the pons. hindbrain
One of the pleasure centers of the brain is found in the hypothalamus
Within the limbic system, the amygdala plays a key role in _____ and the hippocampus plays a key role in aggression; memory
Body temperature, hunger, thirst, emotional states, and coping with stress are functions controlled by the hypothalamus.
Conscious experience, thinking, and voluntary actions are mediated by the cerebral cortex.
If you had damage to your hippocampus, it would most likely impair memory formation
Broca's area is responsible for what? Manipulation of the mouth and jaw for speech
A drug that blocks the function of a neurotransmitter is called a(n) antagonist
A drug that mimics or increases a neurotransmitter's effect is called a(n) agonist
Which area of the brain is responsible for regulating circadian rhythms (our sleep cycle)? Pineal gland
The area critical for processing visual information is the occipital lobe
fMRI can detect brain activity because oxygenated blood provides a stronger magnetic resonance than non oxygenated blood
The somatosensory area plays an important role in behaviors involving touch
A researcher places closely spaced electrodes on her subjects' heads in order to study brain activity. She is using the EEG technique
Which of the following parts of the brain is the primary relay center? Thalamus
When you see the color and shape of a tomato in your vegetable garden, smell its fragrance, hear the buzzing of a bee, feel the texture of the tomato's skin, and taste the flavor, your process of receiving stimulus energy from the environment is called sensation
When you hear music or see a light, you receive physical energy from a stimulus in the world. Your process of converting physical energy from the world into electrochemical energy is called transduction
If a person hears two tones that differ in intensity just barely enough to be detected, the point of detection would be the difference threshold
An architect is designing apartments and wants them to be soundproof. She asks a psychologist what the smallest amount of sound is that can be heard. Her question is most related to the absolute threshold
If you are able to taste a quarter teaspoon of salt dissolved in a glass of water five times out of ten, you have attained your absolute threshold
What theory of perception proposes that detection of stimuli depends on a variety of factors including, but not limited to, physical intensity of the stimulus, fatigue of the observer, and expectancy? Signal detection theory
You can't feel the waistband of your underwear (though you know it is there). This is the result of sensory adaptation
The simultaneous distribution of sensory information across different neural pathways is called parallel processing
The purpose of parallel processing is to allow sensory information to travel rapidly through the brain
You're outside. The sky is blue. When the sun sets, the sky turns pink. After the sun has set, the sky goes pink, then lavender, purple, then dark blue, and finally black. The color changes you perceive are due to the ___ of light it reflects. wavelength
When you can tell the difference between candy apple red and fire engine red, it is partly because the light stimuli differ in their: wavelengths
Jane is having trouble sleeping. As she sits in bed looking around the darkened room, she notices that her peripheral vision seems to be better than her central vision. This is because vision in low light conditions depends on the rods
You are reading this question after light passes into your eyes. Those incoming light waves are then recorded by receptor cells located in your retina
The crossover point where the right visual field information goes to the left hemisphere is called the optic chiasma
As light enters the eye, eventually it reaches the light-sensitive ____ at the back of the second chamber of the eye. retina
Near the center of the retina there is a spot where there are no rods and no cones; this is because of the optic nerve
__________ is a process that involves coupling of the activity of various cells and pathways and helps integrate information about an object. binding
If a child asks you why we can see colors, and you want to answer according to the trichromatic theory of color vision, you might tell him it is because there are ______ different types of cones in the retina. 3
Herman has color blindness. The colors that he cannot tell apart are always complimentary colors
_____________ cues are cues that depend on the combination of the images in the left and right eyes. Binocular
Your mother's and sister's voices have the same pitch and loudness, but you can tell them apart on the telephone. This is due to the perceptual quality or ________ of their voices. timbre
You are listening to music with a wide dynamic range. In the world of amplitude, what do the louder and softer sounds have to do with the air and your ears? With louder sounds, air is pressing with more force on your ears; with softer sounds, air is pressing with less force on your ears.
The bones of the middle ear are set into motion by vibrations of the eardrum
The unit of measure for the intensity of sound is decibel
The major function of the hammer, anvil, and stirrup of the middle ear is to amplify vibrations and pass them on to the inner ear
Every day, you see, hear, smell, taste, and feel stimuli from the outside world. Collecting data about that world is the function of _________, and interpreting the data collected is the function of ____________. sensation; perception
The type of processing that involves starting with a sense of what is happening and then applying that framework to information in the world is called top-down
The smallest intensity of a stimulus that you can detect 50 percent of the time is the absolute threshold
Regarding light, wavelength is the ______ and amplitude is the______ color; brightness
The major purpose of the iris is to regulate the amount of light entering the eye
The clear membrane just in front of the iris through which light first passes is the cornea
The _____ helps focus light onto the retina. lens
The main function of rods and cones is to transduce light energy into electrochemical energy
Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with the sensory receptors
Subliminally presented stimuli can sometimes be consciously perceived
Which theory of color vision most accurately describes the process of color vision at the level of the retina? It also explains color-blindness. Trichromatic theory
In depth perception, familiar size, height in field of view, and shading are examples of monocular cues
The different pitches of the beeps you hear on a touch-tone telephone are due to differences in the _____ of the beeps. frequency
When sound waves enter the ear canal, they first When sound waves enter the ear canal, they first *
Gustatory sensation primarily involves which of the following receptors? Taste Buds
Which receptor is responsible for feeling itch? Pruriceptors
Which receptor is responsible for feeling pain? Nociceptors
Which receptor is responsible for feeling pressure? Baroceptors
Which receptor is responsible for feeling warmth and cold? Thermoceptors
Which receptor is responsible for feeling vibration? Mechanoceptors
You are aware of the thoughts running through your mind and the emotions triggered by some of the thoughts. You are also aware of the sounds you hear and the things you see in the room and the things you smell. You would be considered to be in a state of consciousness
According to Freud, mental processes that occur without a person being aware of them are unconscious
Jordan has decided to go to sleep early. Although her eyes are closed and she is very relaxed, she has not yet fallen asleep. An EEG is most likely to indicate the presence of alpha waves
Which of the following best characterizes a night's sleep? We cycle through the stages of sleep several times throughout the night, roughly every 90 minutes.
When you go to check on your sleeping child, you observe that his eyes are moving back and forth rapidly under his eyelids. It is likely that he is dreaming
Circadian rhythm refers to a pattern of sleep and wake patterns that occurs on a roughly 24-hour schedule
Researchers have found that older adults tend to be sleepier during the day than younger adults. This suggests adolescents' biological clocks undergo a shift as they get older. A delay in the nightly release of ___ called ___seems to underlie this shift. a sleep-inducing neurotransmitter; melatonin
Dreams occur mostly during which stage of sleep? REM
A student nurse makes hourly records of her own blood pressure and body temperature over 30 days. When graphed, these readings changed in a predictable way on a daily basis. The reason for this regularity is that many physiological processes are governed by circadian rhythms
What are the bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity that occur during NREM-2 sleep? Sleep Spindles
Your friend Helen works the night shift at the local grocery store every other day. She has trouble sleeping which is most likely due to the disruption of her circadian rhythms
William James described the human mind as a ________________, or a continuous flow of changing thoughts and feelings. stream of consciousness
The biological cycle of approximately 24 hours in length that regulates our pattern of sleep is called a(n) circadian rhythm
Thinking about thinking is called metacognition
Narcolepsy is a disorder involving periodic attacks of uncontrollable sleepiness
What part of the brain is typically most involved in awareness? Cerebral cortex
Sandra has been using an addictive drug that results in a very euphoric state. If she continues to use this drug she will need to use higher doses to experience the same desired effect
Which of the following disorders is characterized by the temporary cessation of breathing while asleep? Sleep apnea
Night terrors typically occur during non-REM sleep
Mr. Owens always sleeps restlessly, snoring and gasping during the night. It is most likely that Mr. Owens suffers from sleep apnea
Nightmares are to _______as night terrors are to_______ REM sleep; Stage 4 sleep
Sleep deprivation can lead to weight gain, reduced muscle strength, suppression of cells that fight colds, and most likely, which of the following? depression
What represents the most alert state of human consciousness? Controlled processes
During a heated argument with his teenage daughter, Mr. Reed suddenly lapsed into a stage of REM sleep. Mr. Reed apparently suffers from narcolepsy
The concept of "theory of mind" is best described as individuals' understanding that they and others think, feel, perceive, and have private experiences
Psychological research on sleep and memory has found that staying up all night to study for an exam is likely to decrease memory performance
What theory of dreaming proposes that dreaming involves information processing, memory, and problem solving? Cognitive theory of dreaming
Sleepwalking occurs during ______ phase of the sleep cycle Stages 3 and 4
Jerry is in the process of getting a divorce and is having trouble at his job. Previously he had not had any sleep disorders but is bothered by one now. Which disorder would he most likely have developed? Insomnia
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by irresistible urges to fall asleep
Grandpa is napping, snoring loudly, when suddenly he stops snoring. You look to see if he woke up, but he is still asleep and appears to not be breathing. For a moment you wonder if he's dead, but he snorts and resumes snoring. Grandpa is displaying sleep apnea
The sleep disorder narcolepsy occurs when individuals fall unexpectedly into a deep sleep in the middle of daily activities
What do drugs, trauma, fatigue, hypnosis, and sensory deprivation have in common? They produce altered states of consciousness.
According to activation-synthesis theory dreams reflect the brain's efforts to make sense out of neural activity that occurs during sleep
A criticism of activation-synthesis theory is that life experiences stimulate and shape dreaming more than the theory acknowledges
Kathy says that when she meditates, she feels like she becomes one with the universe. Kathy has experienced an altered state of consciousness
One of your friends displays higher than his usual levels of awareness, and another friend displays lower than her usual levels. These can be caused by drugs, trauma, fatigue, sensory deprivation, or possibly hypnosis. You would call these conditions altered states of consciousness
Those who wish to reach a more perfect state of consciousness often engage in meditation
A method of relaxation that involves focusing one's concentration on rhythmic breathing and not on thoughts or feelings is called meditation
Charles has been told he must reduce his sympathetic autonomic arousal. What consciousness-altering technique may help Charles? Meditation
In terms of states of consciousness, hypnosis involves a a divided consciousness: a doer and a watcher.
The divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis receives support from evidence that hypnosis can block sensory input, including pain
Your mother must always have an early morning first cup of coffee. She usually has several more cups throughout the day. If she misses one in the afternoon, she gets a headache. This behavior is connected with ________ use/abuse. stimulant
Your friend Sarah loves the warm feelings she feels toward everybody when she takes Ecstasy (MDMA). You want to warn her that repeated use of this drug could have lasting negative effects on which neurotransmitter? Serotonin
Your friend reported feeling greater energy and a sense of well-being after taking a drug. Medical tests reveal increased activity of her central nervous system. The drug she took is most likely some type of stimulant
A reinforcer that is innately satisfying and does not require any learning to be perceived of as pleasurable is a(n) __________ reinforcer. primary
You feel fine as you sit down in your usual seat in class. However, when Dr. Kraus announces there is a pop quiz on 100 of the hardest words in the last session, your heart starts pounding and you get a queasy feeling. This reaction is most likely a(n) conditioned response
Watson used _____ as a conditioned stimulus in order to condition fear in Little Albert. a white rat
Which of the following is NOT associated with Skinner? Free will
Mark's dog, Gus, sits whenever he says, "Sit." Mark now wants to teach Gus a new trick. He wants to teach him to bark each time he says, "Speak," but whenever Mark says, "Speak," Gus sits. The dog's behavior is an example of generalization
Dr. Meyer is known for his hard pop quizzes. Right before he gives a pop quiz to his students, he goes to the classroom door and closes it. Students soon learn to anticipate a pop quiz whenever he closes the classroom door. Closing the door has become a conditioned stimulus
Kelley is scolded each time she teases her little brother. Her mother notices that the frequency of teasing has decreased. Scolding Kelley is an effective negative reinforcement
Matt wants to train his dog, Buster, to sit. He gives him a treat each time he sits when commanded, but only the first 10 times. Now, Buster has to sit 3 times before he gets a treat. Matt used continuous reinforcement first, and then ___to train Buster. a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
Four month old Baby Nimo quickly learns that he will be picked up if he cries. From a behaviorist perspective, picking up Baby Nimo whenever he cries is a positive reinforcer for Baby Nimo
Larry is grounded each time he hits his little brother. After a few times of being grounded, Larry's misbehavior towards his little brother decreases. Grounding Larry is an example of Negative punishment
Anticipating a scary event whenever eerie music is played in a movie is a function of associative learning
In _____ situations, organisms learn the association between two stimuli. In _____situations, organisms learn the association between a behavior and a consequence. classical conditioning; operant conditioning
Pavlov's dog automatically salivated to food because food is an innate unconditioned stimulus
An example of an innate stimulus-response connection is sneezing in response to sniffing pepper
Pavlov's dog salivated each time food was presented. Salivation in this situation is the unconditioned response
Pavlov's dog salivated to the sound of a bell because the bell had become associated with food
In Pavlov's classic study on classical conditioning, the bell was the _____ before conditioning and the _____ after conditioning had occurred. neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus
Marcia is in love with John but she discovers that John is a jerk, and she ends the relationship. One day, she suddenly gets a whiff of the cologne he wore. All the former good feelings come pouring back. The good feelings coming back is an example of spontaneous recovery
Pavlov's dog salivates each time he hears a bell. Now, however, after several trials of salivating to the bell and NOT receiving any food, the dog stops salivating. What happened? Extinction has occurred.
In the experiment with little Albert conducted by Watson and Raynor, the baby was conditioned to fear a white rat. In this study, the unconditioned stimulus was a loud noise
Who is known for conditioning a baby? Watson
In operant conditioning the consequences of behavior produce change in the probability of the occurrence of the behavior
When it comes to selecting a reinforcer for a child, use of ______________________as a reinforcer should work best. praise
Skinner's position on the existence of free will in humans means that operant conditioning techniques instead of politics should be used to manage societies
Melvin is a teacher. He wants to encourage his students to finish all their work and to do well on it. But, most of the kids don't complete their work even though they were smart enough. From a behavioral perspective, what should Melvin do? Melvin should shape students by selectively reinforcing gradual approximations to the desired goal of completing 100% of the assignments.
Bubba, a smart dog, has learned that if he barks at the neighbors while they're grilling, they will throw him a treat. When Paul is in the yard, Bubba never barks at the neighbors. According to operant conditioning, Bubba is demonstrating that he can discriminate
If, through experience, you come to the conclusion that all things are beyond your control and therefore you should not even try, you are exhibiting learned helplessness
A hitchhiker most likely gets rides on a _____ schedule of reinforcement. variable ratio
Kim is surprised and frustrated to find that her son's misbehavior actually increases when she yells at him. In operant terms, yelling is serving to reinforce the misbehaviors instead of punishing them
A worker is paid $25 for every 20 wind chimes that she builds. On which schedule of reinforcement is she being paid? fixed ratio
Created by: brittneymcurran