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9thGrSem1 Exam

9th Grade World Geography Semester 1 Exam Review

TermDefinition
Types of Regions Formal, functional, perceptual
Formal Region a region with a defined, predetermined boundary
Functional Region has a focal point (often a city) and is the organized space surrounding that central location linked by transportation and communication systems.
Perceptual Region are defined by how people look at them
Latitude an angular distance of a place north or south of the earth's equator
Longitude the angular distance of point east or west of the prime meridian
Earth-sun relationship solstice, equinox, tropics, arctic circle & antarctic circles
Solstice one of the two times during the year when the sun is farthest north or south of the equator
Equinox a day when day and night are the same length
Tropics regions close to the equator
Arctic Circle Top, North Pole
Antarctic Circle bottom, South Pole
Biosphere consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.
Lithosphere a rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust.
Atmosphere a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon
Hydrosphere all the water at and near the surface of the earth, 97% of which is in oceans
Factors affecting climate wind belts, latitudes, ocean currents
Wind belts winds are named by which direction they blow from the pole to the equator. They are the polar easterlies, the westerlies and the trade winds.
Latitudes north to south
ocean currents a movement of ocean water that follows a regular pattern
orographic effect / rain shadow the low rainfall region that exists on the leeward (downwind) side of a mountain range's causing precipitation on the windward side
types of movement globalization, spatial diffusion, physical barriers
Globalization the way countries connect with each other, the way their governments, techniques, cultures, and economies interact
spatial diffusion the spread or movement of a phenomenon over space and through time
physical barriers keep hazardous organisms and materials outside the body
Importance of rivers population settlement and uses
Population settlement a way of arranging settlements into a hierarchy based upon their population or some other criteria
uses of rivers describing an action or state of affairs that was done repeatedly or existed for a period in the past
landforms archipelago, plateau, fjord, peninsula, strait, delta, isthmus
archipelago a group or chain of islands
plateau a flat area of land that is higher than the land around it
fjord a long, narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or slopes
peninsula a portion of land nearly surrounded by water
strait a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two large bodies of water
delta an area of land in which a river divides into smaller rivers and empties into a larger body of water.
isthmus a narrow strip of land, bordered on both sides by water, connecting two larger bodies of land.
What is industrialization? process by which an economy is transformed from primarily agricultural to one based on the manufacturing of goods.
What region of the US was/is the center of industrialization? Eastern Coast
What impact did industrialization have on population settlements? larger population
What is subsistence agriculture? farming that provides the basic needs of a family with little surplus
What is commercial agriculture? growing large quantity of crops or livestock in order to sell them for a profit.
What is GIS? Geographic Information Systems
Geographic Information System a computer-based tool that analyzes, stores, manipulates and visualizes geographic information on a map
GPS Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System a navigational system that can determine absolute location by using satellites and receivers of earth
Setttlement Patterns (which latitudes do most people live in? Why?) northern hemisphere, middle latitude, near water
Effects of El Nino Heavy rain areas that are dry, and dry conditions in areas that usually have rain. Disrupts the fishing industry.
MDC More Developed Countries
More Developed Countries has high standard of living, wide spread infrastructure and is industrialized
LDC Less Developed Countries
Less Developed Countries has low standard of living, infrastructure is outdated and is reliant on agriculture.
What is geography? the study of the human and physical processes and the way they shape the world
What is distortion? maps...imperfections on a map due to projecting a 3-D object onto a 2-D surface
Types of plate movement divergent, convergent, transform boundaries
Divergent plate movement plates that slide a part from each other <---- ---->
Convergent plate movement plates that slide together ---> <---
Transform boundaries plates that slide next to each other v/ ^/
What is the Ring of Fire? an area in the Pacific where the majority of the world's earthquakes and volcanic activity occurs.
What was Pangea? super continent that formed 300 million years ago and started to break up and drift apart into pieces 200 million years ago
Weathering the breaking down of rock and minerals into smaller pieces.
Erosion the movement of smaller rock from one place to the other
climates/biomes tundra, desert, deciduous forest, tropical rainforest
Tundra very cold and minimal precipitation
Desert dry with extreme temperature shifts between day and night
Deciduous Forest moderate amounts of rain water and cooler, middle latitude temperatures
Tropical Rainforest consistently heavy rains and hot temperatures
Main cause of global warming increased amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
What are trade organizations and what do they do for member countries? increase interdependence, and make trade easier by lifting tariffs (examples NAFTA and EU)
Free market/enterprise a system in which private individuals or groups have the right to own property or businesses and make a profit with limited government interference
Interdependence? How does this relate to EU? a system in which private individuals or groups have the right to own property or businesses and make a profit with limited government interference. The members of EU act together promoting trade, peaceful relationships, common currency, etc
Communist economy type all decisions made by government leaders; all businesses owned by community/government (i.e., China, Cuba, etc.)
Traditional economy type agricultural based; did what ancestors did
Socialism economy type Large businesses owned and run by government
Primary economic activity sector where activities are related to the collection of natural resources
Secondary economic activity involves activity related to the manufacturing or processing of resources
Tertiary economic activity involves activity that sell and use products to provide services
quaternary economic activity involves research and data processing
HDI the UN ranking system for country development levels
NIC a country that has begun transitioning from primarily manufacturing and industrial activity (i.e., South Africa, Mexico, China and Brazil)
What is the problem with scarcity? We have unlimited wants and needs but with a limited amount of resources.