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Major Depressive Dis

Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder

A prolonged state of hopeless depression Major depressive disorder
(formerly called “manic-depressive disorder”) alternates between depression and overexcited hyperactivity Bipolar disorder
Symptoms for these disorders may have a ________ pattern Seasonal
_________ protects us from dangerous thoughts and feelings, letting us slow down Depression
________ life may _________ our energy in promising ways, and even mild sadness can be helpful sometimes Reassessing ; Redirect
Depression can be seriously ________ and disabling Maladaptive
A disorder in which a person experiences two or more weeks with five or more symptoms, at least one of which must be: Major depressive disorder ; • Depressed mood or • Loss of interest or pleasure
These symptoms present themselves in the absence of _____ or another______ _______ . Drugs ; Medical condition
Phobias are more common, but _________ is the number one reason people seek mental health services Depression
United States: ___.___% experience moderate or severe depression (CDC, 2014) 7.6%
Worldwide: ___.___ ___% men and ___.___% women have a depressive episode (Global, 2015) 3.95% ; 7.2%
A disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania Bipolar disorder
A hyperactive, wildly optimistic state in which dangerously poor judgment is common Mania
Minor mania fuels Creativity
Strikes more often among those who rely on .... Emotional expression and vivid imagery
Much less common than major depressive disorder, but often more dysfunctional Bipolar disorder
_________ twice as likely as people elsewhere to be diagnosed with this disorder Americans
Bipolar new to DSM-5 ; named ________ Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
Any theory of depression must explain at least the following six phenomena : 1. Behaviors and thoughts change with depression 2. Depression in widespread 3. Womens risk for MDD nearly doubled to mens 4. Most MDD episodes end on their own 5. Usually followed by stressful events 6. Strikes earlier and more widespread
Women experience depression ___.___ times more often than men (CDC, 2014) 1.7
Women’s disorders are generally more ________(depression, anxiety, inhibited sexual desire) internal
Men’s disorders are more_________(alcohol use disorder, antisocial conduct, lack of impulse control) external
About ___/___ diagnosed with depression have experienced an emotional, financial, or professional trauma within the past month 1/4
In North America, young adults _____times more likely than their grandparents to suffer—recently or ever—from depression Three
Some generational affect; Young people now more willing to talk openly about their depression
Risk for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder increases if _____ _____ has disorder. Family member
Twin studies data estimated heritability (the extent to which individual differences are attributable to genes) of major depression at _____ percent. 37
_____ _____ points to “chromosome neighborhood” to help researchers tease out the genes that put people at risk of depression. Linkage analysis
What happens to norepinephrine secretion during bipolar disorder? Neurotransmitter norepinephrine scarce during depression; overabundant during mania
What happens to serotonin secretion during bipolar disorder? Neurotransmitter serotonin scarce/inactive during depression
Why is repetitive physical exercise important in a depressed pt? by increasing serotonin
What does the brain do during depression? It slows.
_____ _____ lobe and adjacent reward center become more active during positive emotions Left frontal
People who eat heart-healthy “Mediterranean diet” (heavy on vegetables, fish, and olive oil) have a comparatively low risk of depression as well as lower risk for many other ailments ------- Why? What’s good for the heart is also good for the brain and mind
Alcohol misuse leads to Depression
People’s assumptions and expectations influence what they perceive. Thinking matters
Their ____ _____ _____ and negative explanatory style often feed depression’s vicious cycle. self-defeating beliefs
_______ _______ may exist with self-defeating beliefs, self-focused rumination, and self-blaming and pessimistic explanatory style. Learned helplessness
Tell me again what learned helplessness is... A condition in which a person suffers from a sense of powerlessness, arising from a traumatic event or persistent failure to succeed. It is thought to be one of the underlying causes of depression.
Who experiences learned hopelessness more often Women
Compulsive fretting; overthinking about our problems and their causes Rumination
Can divert us from thinking about other life tasks Rumination
Critics note a chicken-and-egg problem in the social-cognitive explanation of depression. Which comes first, the ______ explanatory style or the_____ _____ ? Pessimistic ; depressed mood
1) Stressful events are interpreted through 2) A brooding, ____ ____ style, that 3) Creates a hopeless, _____ state, that 4) Hampers the way the person thinks and act Negative explanatory Depressive
Worldwide, ____ people annually take their own lives. 800,000
Explain the basic depression cycle Bad situation > negative explanation > depression > change in behavior
At least ____ times higher risk for suicide with diagnosis of depression, and ironically it may especially occur when people are beginning to ______ (when they become capable of following through). Five ; Rebound
Comparing the suicide rates of different groups, researchers have found: – National differences – Racial differences – Gender differences – Age differences and trends – Other group differences – Day of the week differences
How to help a family member or friend who is talking suicide? Three tips: • Listen, offering sincere empathy (rather than arguments) • Connect, by doing your best to link those at risk with a helpline • Protect, by seeking help right away (doctor, emergency room, or 911) and removing potential tools for suicide
Includes cutting, burning, hitting oneself, inserting objects under nails or skin, and self-administered tattooing. Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI)
People engage in NSSI to: – gain relief from intense negative thoughts through the distraction of pain – ask for help and gain attention – relieve guilt by self-punishment – get others to change their negative behavior – fit in with a peer group
Created by: 811969848858069