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Anxiety Disorders

Some of us are more prone to notice and remember information perceived as _________, and the brain’s danger-detection system becomes __________. Threatening ; Hyperactive
When this occurs, we are at greater risk for an anxiety disorder, or for two other disorders that involve anxiety: – Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) – Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Anxiety disorders are marked by ________, persistent anxiety or ________ behaviors that reduce anxiety; include: Distressing ; Maladaptive -- Generalized anxiety disorder – Panic disorder – Phobia
Generalized anxiety disorder Person is unexplainably and continually tense and uneasy.
Panic disorder Person experiences panic attacks, sudden episodes of intense dread, and fears the next episode’s unpredictable onset.
Phobia Person is intensely and irrationally afraid of a specific object, activity, or situation.
NAME THAT DISORDER: Person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal Generalized anxiety disorder
NAME THAT DISORDER: Sudden episodes of intense dread Panic disorder
NAME THAT DISORDER: Lack of concentration on a task Generalized anxiety disorder
NAME THAT DISORDER: Anxiety disorder marked by a persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation. Phobia
NAME THAT DISORDER: Irregular heartbeat, chest pains, shortness of breath, choking, trembling, dizziness Panic disorder
NAME THAT DISORDER: Characterized by persistent and repetitive thoughts, actions), or both Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
NAME THAT DISORDER: unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations. Panic disorder
NAME THAT DISORDER: Occurs when obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors persistently interfere with everyday life and cause distress Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Fear or avoidance of public situations from which escape may be difficult (should a panic attack occur). Agoraphobia
NAME THAT DISORDER: Worry continually, often jittery, on edge, and sleep deprived Generalized anxiety disorder
NAME THAT DISORDER: Often seen with depression, but usually debilitating even on its own Generalized anxiety disorder
NAME THAT DISORDER: People with this disorder avoid social situations (speaking up in a group, eating out, going to parties), and if unable to avoid them, may experience strong symptoms of their anxiety. Social anxiety disorder (formerly called “ social phobia”) is an intense fear of other people’s negative judgments.
NAME THAT DISORDER: Two-thirds women Generalized anxiety disorder
NAME THAT DISORDER: include a fear of particular animals, insects, heights, blood, or closed spaces. Specific phobias
NAME THAT DISORDER: Is more common among teens and young adults than older people, also strong genetic basis Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
NAME THAT DISORDER: Is characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia lingering for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
NAME THAT DISORDER: Often followed by worry over a possible next attack. Panic disorder
NAME THAT DISORDER: Women at higher risk (1 in 10) than men (1 in 20) of developing this disorder, following a traumatic event. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Often involves military veterans (___.___ percent of combatants; ___/___ of noncombatants among Americans in Afghanistan) and survivors of accidents, disasters, and violent and sexual assaults (including an estimated ___/___of prostitutes). 7.6 ; 1.4 ; 2/3
Research demonstrates how a fearful event can later become a fear of similar events. Stimulus generalization
Can help maintain a developed and generalized phobia. Reinforcement
__________ research helps explain how panic-prone people associate anxiety with certain cues. Learning may magnify a single painful and frightening event into a full-blown phobia through two conditioning processes: Conditioning Stimulus generalization Reinforcement
Observing others can contribute to development of some fears ....shown by... Olsson and colleagues: Wild monkey research findings
Our interpretations and expectations also shape our reactions. Hypervigilance
Researchers have identifies ___ gene variations associated with typical anxiety disorder symptoms 17
Genetic predisposition to ______,_______,_______ anxiety, OCD, and PTSD
Genes influence levels of neurotransmitters • Serotonin • Glutamate:
Influences sleep, mood, attending to threat Serotonin
Heightens activity in the brain’s alarm center Glutamate
Experience affects gene expression. __________ _______ are often organic molecules that attach to chromosomes and turn certain genes on or off Epigenetic marks.
Traumatic fear-learning experiences can leave tracks in the ______ Brain
Fear circuits created within the ________ result in easy inroads for more fear experiences Amygdala
Brain scans show higher-than-normal activity in the ________ of brain scans of people with PTSD when they view traumatic images Amygdala
______ _______ ________, a brain region that monitors our actions and checks for errors, is especially likely to be hyperactive in people with OCD Anterior cingulate cortex
We seem _______ prepared to fear certain threats—these are easily conditioned and difficult to extinguish. Biologically
Examples of biologically influenced fears. Flying (heights)
Our ______ focus on dangers our ancestors faced. Our compulsive acts typically exaggerate behaviors that helped them survive. Phobias
Created by: 811969848858069