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Pharmacology Basics

Reviews basics of pharmacology

Pharmacokinetics What the body does to the drug.
4 Basic Processes involved in drug utilization in the body (Determine the [drug] at its sites of action. 1) absorption 2) distribution 3) metabolism 4) excretion
Absorption Movement of drug from site of administration into the blood
Distribution Drug movement from the blood to the interstitial space of tissues then into cells
Metabolism (Biotransformation) Process of breaking down a drug
Excretion Movement of drugs outside of the body
Blood-Brain Barrier Presence of tight junctions between the cells in capillary walls of CNS means drugs must pass capillary cells not between them to get into CNS. (Also p-glycoprotein)
Therapeutic Range Lies between the MEC and the toxic concentration - Drugs with a wide therapeutic range are relatively easy to use safely.
Half-Life The time required for the amount of drug in the body to decline by 50%. Drugs with short 1/2-lives have short dosing intervals.
Factors Affecting Drug Absorption (5) 1) Rate of dissolution 2) Surface area available for absorption 3) Blood flow 4) Lipid solubility 5) pH partitioning
What is an agonist? A drug that brings out a specific action by binding with the appropriate receptors
What is an antagonist? A drug that inhibits a specific action by binding with a particular receptor
Adverse Reaction An undesirable response to a drug, varies from mild to fatal is known as what?
A controlled substance. Class I-V A drug with the potential for abuse and/or addiction.
What is the major route of elimination? Kidneys
Synergism Occurs when 2 drugs w/ different sites or mechanisms of action produce greater effects when taken together.
What are side effects? Often occur with usual therapeutic doses of drugs. Mild but annoying
Teratogenic Ability of substance to cause abnormal fetal development when taken by pregnant women.
Enteral Drug Directly into the GI tract ie: oral, NG, rectal
Topical Drug Is applied directly to the area where a reaction is desired. The resulting effect is often local.
Parenteral Drug Is applied to an area of the body other than the digestive tract. IM, SQ, IV, epidural
generic name The name the drug manufacturer uses for the drug.
brand name/trade name A manufacturer's proprietary name, or the name for the drug manufactured by one company for their medication. .capitalized
chemical name The name given for the atomic or molecular structure of a drug.
3 Names Drugs use 1. Chemical 2. Generic (nonproprietary name) 3. Brand or Trade name
percutaneous through topical (skin), sublingual(under the tongue), buccal (against the cheek) INH(breathing
desired effect The expected response of the medication
nephrotoxic Damage to the kidney
hepatotoxic Damage to the liver
anaphylactic reaction Life-threatening allergy
adverse effect More severe symptoms or problems that arise because of the medication
Idiosyncratic response Strange, unpredictable response to a medication
Pregnancy categories Classification of drugs according to their known level of risk to the fetus. A,B,C,D,X.
Pregnancy category A Many studies done and shows no increased risk of fetal abnormalities
Pregnancy category X Many studies done and show positive evidence of fetal abnormalities
What is the main organ of metabolism? Liver
Place in order, from quickest to slowest absorption- PO, IM, SQ, IV IV, SQ, IM, PO
Incompatibility When one drug interferes with the action of another drug.
Created by: tgwin7