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Disorder basics

QuestionAnswer
According to psychologists and psychiatrists, psychological disorders are marked by a “________ significant disturbance in an individual’s ________ , emotion ________, or _______ ” (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Clinical ; Cognition ; Regulation ; Behavior
Such thoughts, emotions, or behaviors are dysfunctional or __________ . Maladaptive
Describe the earliest therapy. “Therapy” often involved physical and mental torture.
Who recognized abnormal behavior as sickness of the mind Philippe Pinel (1745–1826) – Opposed barbaric treatments of patients. – Introduced and encouraged reforms and humane treatments.
By the _______s the search began for physical causes of mental disorders and for curative treatments. 1800
With the medical model of mental disorders, mental illness is to be diagnosed on the basis of ________ and treated through therapy, often in a _________ hospital. Symptoms ; Psychiatric
Reinvigoration of the medical model has come from recent research in _________ influenced brain abnormalities in brain structure and biochemistry. Genetically
General approach positing that biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness The Biopsychosocial Approach
Some symptoms of disorders are culture-related, which points to environmental influences. – For example, the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa occur mostly in ...... Food abundant cultures.
Depression and _________ occur worldwide. Schizophrenia
The study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change. Epigenetics
Disorders reflect – Genetic __________ and physiological states – Psychological _______ – Social and cultural circumstances Predispositions ; Dyanamics
The_________ approach emphasizes that mind and body are inseparable. Biopsychosocial
_________ shows that our environment can affect the expression (or not) of a gene, thus affecting the development of psychological disorders. Epigenetics
What is the medical model? Physical causes of mental disorders curative treatments. • With the medical model of mental disorders, mental illness is to be diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and treated through therapy, often in a psychiatric hospital.
Classification orders and describes __________ Symptoms
Diagnostic classification in psychiatry and psychology attempts to: – P – S – P – Predict the disorder’s future course – Suggest appropriate treatment – Prompt research into its causes
The most common tool for system for classifying disorders is the......______________ now in its fifth edition (DSM-5), 2013 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
DSM-5 ; Published by the _________ Psychiatric Association – Describes disorders and estimates their _________ American ; Occurrence
In the new DSM-5, some changes include: - Some label changes (e.g., autism spectrum disorder) – New categories: Hoarding disorder, binge-eating disorder – New or altered diagnoses—some controversial (concern that simple bereavement may be too quickly diagnosed as a depressive disorder)
DSM criticisms include: – Too wide a net – Antisocial personality disorder and generalized anxiety disorder did poorly on field trials – DSM-5 continues the path of potentially pathologizing everyday life – Labels are or may act as society’s subjective value judgments
DSM benefits include: – Helping mental health professionals communicate – It is useful in research – Clients often relieved to identify suffering
Marked by extreme inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
___ percent American 4- to 17-year-olds receive this diagnosis after displaying its key symptoms; _____ percent adults have ADHD symptoms. 11% ; 2.5%
– Those who say ADHD is overdiagnosed argue: • “ disorder” of having a Y chromosome; ADHD is three times more prevalent in boys than girls. • ADHD may in effect be marketed by companies that offer drugs for its treatment (Thomas, 2015). • Energetic child + boring school = ADHD diagnoses?
– Alternate view of those arguing that ADHD is not overdiagnosed: • More frequent diagnoses due to increased awareness of disorder • Scientific community agrees ADHD is a real neurobiological disorder • Coexists with learning disorders • Is heritable • It is treatable with medications
DO PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS PREDICT VIOLENT BEHAVIOR? Mental disorders seldom lead to violence and clinical prediction of violence is unreliable.
Most people with disorders are non_______ and are more likely to be ________ than perpetrators of violence. Nonviolent ; Victim
When they are violent, moral and ethical questions about whether society should hold people with disorders ________ for their violent actions are raised. Responsible
Triggers for violence acts by people with mental disorders, in addition to disordered thinking, include _______ _________ . Substance abuse.
The U.S. National institute of Mental Health estimates just over __ in __ adult Americans “suffer from a ________ mental disorder in a given year” (Kessler et al., 2008). 1 in 4 ; Diagnosable
Immigrant paradox Those born to immigrants to the United States at greater risk of mental disorder than the immigrants (for example, Mexican-Americans born in the U.S.).
Poverty is a risk factor – Incidence of serious psychological disorders is doubled . – Conditions and experiences associated with poverty contribute to the development of psychological disorders. – Some disorders can drive people into poverty; correlation goes both ways
AGE USUALLY SHOWN: Antisocial personality disorder 8
AGE USUALLY SHOWN: Phobias 10
AGE USUALLY SHOWN: Alcohol use disorder 20
AGE USUALLY SHOWN: Obsessive-compulsive disorder 20
AGE USUALLY SHOWN: Schizophrenia 20
AGE USUALLY SHOWN: Major depressive disorder 25
Created by: 811969848858069