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Sociology Final

Cumulative Test

QuestionAnswer
Demography The statistical study of population dynamics.
Replacement fertility rate The minimum number of children a woman would need to average in her lifetime to reproduce the population in the next generation.
Immigration When individuals join a population group of which they were not previously a member.
Emigration When members of a population leave that group.
Pull factors New job opportunities, connections with families, freedom of religious expression, or other factors that make migration appealing. These factors serve as a sort of magnet attracting the immigrant to the new place.
Push factors Seeking away from unappealing features in their home country such as violence, oppression, and lack of jobs. These factors encourage emigrants to leave.
Culture-bound syndrome A disease of illness that cannot be understood apart from specific context. There is something particular about the culture - how it is organized, what it believes, what is expected of members - that contributes to that malady. I.E. anorexia in the US
Drug-sociological definition Any habit-forming substance that directly affects the brain or nervous system. (Affects physiological functions, mood, perception, or consciousness; has potential for misuse; may be harmful for user or society)
Addiction Used to describe physical dependence to a drug.
Psychological dependence or habituation Occurs when a user needs a drug for the feeling of well-being that it produces.
What is social change? Significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture, including norms and values.
What are the four characteristics of and for social change? -It happens all of the time -It is sometimes intentional, but often unplanned -It is controversial because it disrupts the status quo -Some change matters more than others
What are the main sources of social change? Values and beliefs; technology, discovery, and invention; population size; diffusion; physical environment; wars and conquests
What is Ellul's technique? That our systemic commitment to maximizing efficiency and increasing productivity in all areas of human endeavor.
What are Postman's five questions re: technology? What is the problem for which this technology is the solution?Whose problem is it?What new problems might be created bc we solve the problem?Which peo&insts might be most seriously harmed?Which peo&inst might acquire special eco&political power?
Relative deprivation The conscious feeling of negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities. Things aren't as good as they hoped they would be.
New social movements An organized collective activity that addresses values and social identities, as well as improvements in the quality of life.
What are the stages of societal transformation proposed by the demographic transition model? Stage 1: Preindustrial Society, Stage 2: Early Industrial Society, Stage 3: Late Industrial Society, Stage 4: Postindustrial Society
Stage 1: Preindustrial Society This is the stage humans occupied throughout most of our history. Global population was steady for a very long time. Nations at this state are characterized by high fertility rates and high death rates. Life expectancy seems to be short.
Stage 2: Early Industrial Society Death rates fall while birthrates remain high. More babies survive infancy and additional children make it to adulthood. Bc there are more young adults, and the birthrate often stays high, even more babies are born. Overall life expectancy increases.
Stage 3: Late Industrial Society Over time, fertility rates begin to drop. This has resulted from a less agricultural society and more women are working and becoming independent.
Stage 4: Postindustrial Society Eventually the demographic transition is complete and population size becomes stable once again. This occurs because birthrates and death rates both reach low levels.
How do the terms prevalence and incidence differ? What does each measure? The 35 million people globally living with HIV is an examples of prevalence. Incidence referee to the 2.1 million new cases in 2013.
Prevalence The total number of cases of a specific disorder that exist in a given time.
Incidence The number of new cases of a specific disorder that occur within a given population during a stated period.
How did the Affordable Care Act in 2014 impact the rate of uninsured Americans? With the implantation of it, the uninsured rate fell from 17.1 percent at the end of 2013 to 11.9 percent in the beginning of 2015.
What are the relationships between the environment and people outlined in the text? -The environment provides the resources essential for life. -The environment serves as a waste repository. -The environment "houses" our species.
Human ecology The area of study concerned with the interrelationships between people and their environment.
In what ways is the use of alcohol thoroughly integrated into our culture? -Called "social lubricant" -Used in informal rituals (Christmas eggnog) -Used in formal rites (blood of Christ) -Important to economy
Main sources of social change Values and beliefs; technology; discovery and invention; population size; diffusion; physical environment; wars and conquest
Three main perspectives on social change The Evolution of Societies; Equilibrium and Social Order; Resources, Power, and Change
Social Evolution (The Evolution of Societies) A theory of social change that holds that societies progress from simple to complex over time. From this perspective, traditional societies contain within them the essential building blocks that serve as the foundation for all societies. Many reject idea
Equilibrium Model (Equilibrium and Social Order) The theory that society's natural tendency is toward social order with change in one part of society counterbalanced by adjustments in others.
Vested interests (Resources, Power, and Change, Veblen) Those people or groups who will suffer in the event of social change and who have a stake in maintaining the status quo. Marx accepted the evolutionary argument that societies develop along a particular path. History proceeds through a series of stages.
What is sociology? The systematic study of the relationship between the individual and society of the consequences of difference.
Sociological imagination Our recognition of the interdependent relationship between who we are as individuals and the social forces that shape our lives...i.e. if we go to college, what factors might influence that decision?
Agency The freedom individuals have to choose and act.
Social Inequality A condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power.
Anomie A weak sense of social solidarity due to a lack of agreed upon rules to guide behavior. It increases the likelihood of loneliness, isolation, and despair. Durkheim predicted this would happen due to increased division of labor.
Macrosociology Sociological investigation that concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations. Focuses on society as a whole and how broad social forces shape our lives.
Microsociology Sociological investigation that stresses the study of small groups and the analysis of our everyday experiences and interactions.
Functionalist perspective Approach that emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability. Society is like a living organism with its various parts working together for the good of the whole. Durkheim.
Conflict perspective Approach that assumes social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power of the allocation of resources. Focuses on valued resources in society. Marx.
Interactionist perspective Approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole. Society is the product of our everyday interactions through with we establish shared meanings and thus construct order. Goffman.
What is sociology and how does one practice it? Personal, recognizing the impact our individual position has on who we are and how we think and act; academic, different jobs; applied, use of discipline of sociology with specific intent for human behavior and organizations; clinical,
What was important about Durkheim's study of suicide? He wanted to establish sociology's legitimacy as a distinct discipline. He theorized that social facts shape individual actions.
How do power and inequality shape outcomes? Marx-emphasizedthe role that power and control over resources played in how social order is est. and maintained;Weber-class and its ass. control over material resources may determine who has power in most instances
Functionalist sociological perspectives Views as stable, well integrated; problems develop when expectations fall, or roles are not performed correctly
Conflict sociological perspectives Views as characterized by tension and struggle between groups; problems develop when groups with different values and amounts of power meet and compete
Interactionist sociological perspective Views as active in influencing and affecting everyday social interaction; problems tend to develop from "label theory" - when people become aware of a behavior and labels it a social problem
Scientific method A systematic organized series of steps that ensure maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem.
Independent variable (x) The variable in a causal relationship that causes or influences a change in a second variable.
Dependent variable (y) The variable in a causal relationship that is subject to the influence of another variable.
Correlation A relationship between two variables in which a change in one coincides with a change in the other. It does not equal causation.
Causal logic A relationship exists between variables in which change in one brings about change in the other.
Quantitative Driven by statistics/numerical data
Qualitative Small groups, observational
Experiments An artificially created situation that allows a researcher to manipulate variables.
What are some research ethics? Informed consent, confidentiality, value neutrality, code of ethics
Code of Ethics Professional Competence; Integrity, Professional and Scientific Responsibility; Respect for People's Rights, Dignity, and Diversity; Social Responsibility
Steps of the Sociological Research Process Define the Problem; Review the Literature; Formulate a Testable Hypothesis; Collect and Analyze Data; Develop a Conclusion
Survey technique to collect data Questionnaires, interviews; yields information about specific issues; but can be expensive and time consuming
Observation technique to collect data Ethnography; yields detailed information about specific groups or organizations; but involves moths if not years of labor-intensive data collection
Experiment technique to collect data Deliberate manipulation of people's social behavior; yields direct measure of people's behavior; but has ethical limitations on the degree to which subjects' behavior can be manipulated
Existing sources/secondary analysis to collect data Analysis of census or health data, analysis of films of TV commercials; cost-efficiency, nonreactive, but limited to data collected for some other purpose
Created by: jae_moore