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Psycholog101 Final

QuestionAnswer
What is psychology? The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
What is Structuralism Wundt- Father of Psychology as a science, Leipzig science lab-explored structures of the mind, introspection
Functionalism Environmental Factors, purpose of behavior
Processes of memory Encoding (putting it in), Storage (holding onto the information), retrieval (getting information out)
Mnemonic Devices can be used to help encode. chunking, songs, letters
Short term memory 12-30 seconds, susceptible to interference
Long term memory can be permanent
Episodic memory Declarative, events experienced by a person, affected by amnesia
Sematic Memory declarative, facts, general knowledge, affected by amnesia
Procedural memory Implicit memory, motor skills, habits, trained reflexes, nondeclarative, not affected by amnesia
Encoding specificity state dependent learning: memories formed during a particular psysiological or psychological state will be easier to recall when in a similar state
Recall must be pulled from memory with few external cues
retrieval failure recall has temporarily failed TOT (tip of the tongue) phenomenon
Recognition the ability to match information to a memory
false positive an error of recognition in which people think they recognize something that is not actually in memory
Elizabeth Loftus Showed that what people see and hear about an event after the fact easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event
retroactive newer information interferes with the retrieval of information
proactive information already in memory interferes with learning new information
Human development the scientific study of how people as they age from conception until death
Longitudinal design research design in which one group of participants is studied over a long period of time
Nature inherited characteristics of personality, physical growth and social interactions
Nurture environment on personality, physical growth and social interactions
Behavioral genetics focuses on nature vs nurture
Infants are born with reflexes grasping, moro(startle), rooting(looking for food), stepping, sucking
cognitive development the development of thinking, problem solving and memory
Jean Piaget developed a 4 stage theory of cognitive development
1. Sensory motor stage infant uses his or her senses and motor ability to interact with objects in their environment
2. Preoperational stage The preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world, develop a theory of mind
3. Concrete stage stage in which school child becomes capable of logical thoughts
4. Formal Operations stage in which one can use abstract reasoning
Erickson's 1. Infant Trust Vs Mistrust
Erickson's 2. Toddler Autonomy Vs Inferiority
Erickson's 3. Preschool Initiative Vs guilt
Erickson's 4. Elementary School Industry Vs Inferiority
Erickson's 5. Adolescence Identity Vs Role confusion
Erickson's 6. Early adulthood Intimacy Vs Isolation
Erickson's 7. Middle Adulthood Generativity Vs Stagnation
Erickson's 8. Late Adulthood/ Elder Ego Intergrity Vs Despair
Preconventional Morality The consequences determine morality; behavior that is rewarded is right that is punished wrong
conventional Morality conformity to social norms is right, nonconformity is wrong
post conventional morality moral principles determined by the person right and wrong ad may disagree with societal norms
Distress The effect of undesirable and unpleasant stressors
Eustress the effect of positive events, or the optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and wellbeing
You can't remember anything that happened a week before an accident retrograde amnesia
could not remember the actor's name, but it started with a B Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon
A Measure of your Memory in which you need to pick the correct answer from a list of options Recognition
has a tumor that affected their ability to form new memories, the tumor is most likely affecting the Hippocampus
You enter an old password instead of a new password proactive interference
not being able to recall your old phone number is retroactive interference
You are introduced to 8 new people but only remember the first two and the last three the serial position affect
What captures the notion of sensory memory when you see a bright light and then see white spots or afterimages
Many life events are difficult to retrieve because the information fades from memory
vivid recollections of high impact events flashbulb memories
carrying out motor and perceptual procedures are nondeclarative memories
Social psychology is the scientific study of how people think about, influence and relate to one another
A tendency to overestimate the extent to which a stranger's violent behavior stems from his or her aggressive personality the fundamental attribution error
Feelings, often based on our beliefs that predispose us to respond in particular ways to objects, people and events are called attitudes
Studies of role playing most likely highlight the effects of actions on attitudes
The participants in Philip Zimbardos study were so endangered by their role playing that the study was discontinued
Solomon Asch asked people to identify which of the three comparison lines was identical to a standard line the research studied conformity
Milgrams study examined Obedience
Someone believes most young women from California are good looking, and that good looking women are selfish and egotistical stereotyping
Someone is not hired because of his or her race discrimination
the ingroup is the set of people with whom we share a common identity
Type A personality ambitious, time conscious, and has high levels of hostility and anger
Type B Personality relaxed and laid back, less driven and competitive slow to anger
Type C Personality Pleasant but repressed, tends to internalize anger and anxiety, finds expressing emotion difficult, higher cancer rate
Created by: 1092968720738524