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chemistry chapter 5

study guide

QuestionAnswer
Periodic Table of the Elements (p.105) A table of the chemical elements arranged to display their periodic properties in relation to their atomic numbers.
Periodic Law (p.107) The law stating that the properties of elements vary with their atomic numbers in a periodic way.
Transuranium Elements (p.107) An element with an atomic number higher than ninety-two(92)
Group (p.111) A vertical column of elements in the periodic table with similar physical and chemical properties. (Same as family.)
Family (p.111) A vertical column of elements in the periodic table with similar physical and chemical properties. (Same as group.)
Period (p.111) A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table; also called a series.
Series (p.111) A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table; also called a period.
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (p.111) The body responsible for the standardization of chemical nomenclature and usage.
North American Convention Periodic Table (p.111) A combination of Arabic numerals and letters are placed above each column to indicate the valence electron structure of the elements in each column.
Representative Group (p,111) Elements in the s and p blocks of the periodic table; designated with A suffixes in the North American Convention Periodic Table.
Metal (p.111) An element located to the left of the heavy stair-step line in the periodic table; an element that is typically solid, malleable, ductile, lustrous, that conducts electricity and heat well, and that forms positive ions when it gives away its few v
Nonmetal (p.112) An element located to the right of, but not touching, the heavy stair-step line in the periodic table; generally a gas or soft.
Metalloid (p.112) An element whose properties lie between those of metals and nonmetals;a compound found touching the heavy stair-step line in the periodic table.
Lanthanide Series (p.112) A portion of the sixth series of the periodic table that includes the inner transition metals from lanthanum to lutetium.
Actinide Series (p.112) A portion of the seventh series of the periodic table that includes the inner transition metals from actinium to lawrencium.
Atomic Radius (p.113) The distance from the center of an atoms nucleus to its outermost electron; measured using a x-ray diffraction.
First Ionization energy (p.115) The minimum amount of energy required to remove the first electron from the outermost shell of a single neutral atom in its gaseous state.
Electron Affinity (p.115) The amount of energy required or released when an electron is added to a neutral atom to form a negative ion.
Electronegativity (p.116) A measure of the tendency of bonded atoms to attract electrons: designated by a small decimal called the electronegativity number (EN).
Descriptive Chemistry (p.118) The study of elements and the compounds they form that stresses identification of properties rather than theoretical calculations.
Hydrocarbons (p.447) An organic, non polar compound containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms.
Alkali Metals (p.120) A group 1 (1A) metal; has one valence electron.
Alkaline Earth-Metals (p.120) A Group 2 (2A) metal; has two valence electrons.
Big Bang (p.121) The most popular evolutionary theory for the origin of the universe; suggests that all matter in the universe was condensed to a tiny point and expanded rapidly in a giant explosion that started our universe some 13.7 billion years ago.
Transition Metals (p.123) An element in the d block groups (3-12) of the periodic table.
Inner Transition Metals (p.124) A member of the lanthanide of actinide series.
Paramagnetism (p.124) A weak attraction of a substance by a magnetic field, usually as a result of unpaired electrons.
Post-Transition Metals (p.125) A metal found in families 3-5 in the periodic table.
Metalloids (p.112) An element whose properties lie between those of metals and nonmetals: a compound found touching the heavy stair-step line in the periodic table.
Semiconductors (p.125) A substance with an electrical conductivity intermediate between a conductor and an insulator; can act as either a conductor or an insulator depending on the circumstances.
Oxide (p.130) A binary compound in which the oxidation number of oxygen is -2. (for example, Li2O.)
Sulfide (p.130) A binary compound in which the oxidation number of sulfur is -2. (for example, h2s.)
Halogen (p.131) A group 17 (7A) element; has seven valence electrons, making it chemically reactive.
Noble Gas (p.132) A group 18 (8A) element; has a full outer energy level, very stable and thus essentially inert.
Johann Dobereiner A chemist that began to arrange known elements systematically.
John Newlands Worked to organize the elements and suggested the law of octaves. Organized elements by atomic mass.
Dmitri Mendeleev Arranged elements by their atomic masses, also organized elements that were not yet discovered. He as well formed the Periodic Law.
Henry Mosley Found that the frequencies of X-Rays scatted by the elements are related to the number of protons in the nucleas. This revealed the electron structure of the atom that was related to the atomic number.
Linus Pauling He was the first chemist to quantify electronegativity, noted flourine held the strongest electrons, and cesium held the weakest.
Henry Cavendish First to systematically collect and study Hydrogen. Also, he studied other gases and electricity.
Sir Humphrey Davy First to isolate pure forms of Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, and Barium.
Daniel Rutherford Recognized Nitrogen as an element, and later described the properties of Oxygen.
Hydrogen It is lightest and most abundant element in the universe, is extremely flammable in air, and is used in the industrial production of ammonia.
Nitrogen Existing as diatomic molecules, this gas is tasteless, colorless, and odorless, and it accounts for approximately 78% of the earth's atmosphere.
Oxygen This element constitutes 21% of the earth's atmosphere and is the most abundant element in the earth's crust. It is essential for life in all animals and humans.
Sulfur A nonmetallic element referred to as brimstone in the Bible and exists in a variety of forms, including a brittle, yellow, crystalline solid in its native form.
Transition metals The large group of elements that have their highest energy electrons in interior d sub levels.
Post-transition metals What all of the metals in the p block of the periodic table are called.
Electronegativity Not typically found in a cell on the periodic table.
H & He According to the big band theory, the very first elements would have probably been these.
Elements with three-letter symbols Are all radioactive & have not been verified.
High electronegativities are associated with large ionization energies and high electron affinities. True
Graphite and diamond are both composed of the same element, carbon. True
The presence of calcium or magnesium ions in water make it "hard". True
The largest ionization energies are for the removal of an electron from a full energy level. True
Hydrogen normally exists as a monatomic gas. False
None of the noble gases form compounds with other elements. False
Halogens are easily obtainable in their elemental forms. False
The most reactive as well as most electronegative element. Flourine
The only metal that is a liquid at room temperature Mercury
The name given to the horizontal rows in the periodic table Period or Series
The name given to the B-group of elements Transition Metals
Created by: shelbyhollcroft0