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kinesiology

gait and posture

QuestionAnswer
events that place between heel contact of same foot stride
the distance between right heel strike and the following right heel strike (56 inches) stride length
events between heel contacts of opposite feet step
the distance traveled in one step (28 inches) step length
the distance between heel centers of two consecutive foot contacts (how far apart are your feet) step width
2 steps make a______ stride
(normal) 3 inches from heel to heel is? how far apart are your feet
the number of steps a person will walk over a period of time (step rate) cadence
(cadence) _____ steps /min 110-120
the speed at which a person walks (distance per time) walking velocity
the angle between the line of progression and a line between the midpoint of heel to metatarsal head of the 2nd toe. foot angle
toe in or toe out foot angle
the events that occur within two heel contacts of the same leg and divided into the stance and swing phase, and each phase is further divided the gait cycle
_____% is stance and ___% is swing 60% and 40%
it describes points in time and key points in the gait cycle traditional
it describes periods of time and the dynamic nature of gait rancho los amigos (RLA)
1) heel strike 2) foot flat 3) mid stance 4) heel off 5) toe off traditional stance phase
1) initial contact 2) loading response 3) mid stance 4) terminal stance 5) pre-swing rancho los amigos stance phase
begins when heel first contacts the ground heel strike
the center of gravity of the body is at its ______ point lowest
ankle held in neutral DF (hip flexion/ knee flexion) heel strike
ankle transitions toward foot-flat stance and DF muscles are eccentrically activated to lower the ankle into plantar flexion heel strike
the knee is slightly flexed positioned to absorbed shock of intial weight bearing heel strike
quadriceps are eccentrically active to allow a slight "give" to the flexed knee and help prevent the knee from buckling heel strike
hip extensors are isometrically active to prevent trunk from jackknifing forward heel strike
loading response of gait foot flat
muscles and joints of the lower limb assists with shock absorption as the lower extremity continues to accept increasing amounts of body weight foot flat
ankle moved into 5-10 degrees of PF foot flat
knee flexed to about 15 degrees acting as as hock absorbing spring foot flat
quadriceps function eccentrically, and hip extensors guide the hip towards increasing extension foot flat
where does foot flat occur? talocrural joint
you have to have one leg stance to walk mid stance
occurs as leg approaches vertical position mid stance
leg is in single limb support, as other limb is freely swinging forward mid stance
DF muscles inactive , PF muscles are eccentrically active controlling the rate at which the lower leg advances over the foot mid stance
knee reaches near extended postion (quadriceps) mid stance
hip abductors play an important role in stabilizing the pelvis in the frontal plane, preventing the drop of the pelvis on the opposite side mid stance
heel breaks contact off the ground heel off
PF muscles and Achilles' tendon stretch in preparation for propulsion heel off
PF muscles contract concentrically heel off
extended knee prepares to flex heel off
hip extends, ending in about 10 degrees to extention heel off
eccentric activation of hip flexors heel off
toes in hyperextension at MTP toe off
ankle ; PF through concentric activation of PF muscles toe off
knee flexed 30 degrees , hamstrings active toe off
knee flexion is a result of inertia produced as hip is pulled into flexion toe off
the final stage, the hip is in a neutral position, with the thigh perpendicular to the ground toe off
in toe off _____ is 1st and ______ is 2nd tibia, femur
toe off complete and limb swings positioned directly under the body ( when stance foot lifts from the floor and ends with knee flexion during swing) early swing (acceleration)
swing limb is directly under the body (when knee flexion during swing and ends when tibia is perpendicular to the ground) mid swing (mid stance)
after mid swing; swing limb extends and ends to heel strike terminal swing (deceleration)
walking backwards and then forwards using quads and gluts is testing your _____ phase swing
double -single- double- single- double is? double & single limb support
if an individual walks normal through a large pipe, can he walk in normal stance? no
displacement of CoM is ? vertical/ horizontal displacement
muscle weakness/ paralysis, joint/ muscle ROM limitation / hyperflexibility, neurological involvement, pain ,leg length discrepancy (x-ray the best way) gait deviations
on heel strike, the foot quickly drops into PF, producing a sound as it hits the ground foot slap
foot slap is weak DF of the ? tibialis anterior
individual appears to be stepping over an imaginary obstacles and initial foot contact is made with with forefoot or entire plantar surface of foot. (more hip flexion and sound is important) high stepping gait
swing leg is advanced in semi-circle arc. (saggital plane, no hip flexion, weak DF) hip circumduction
excessive elevation of pelvis on swing side hip hiking
backward lean of trunk during foot-flat phase weak gluteus Maximus gait
flexed postion of hip and knee during stance phase of gait , often referred to as a crouched gait flexion contracture
during single-limb support, pelvis and trunk lean excessively to the same or opposite side due to weak hip abductor muscles (trendenlenburg sign) weak hip abductor gait
knee
Created by: Shannon10