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RT 101


what organs are located in the abdominal cavity peritoneum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, stomach, intestines, kidneys, ureters, major blood vessels
what organs are located in the pelvic cavity rectum, urinary bladder, parts of the reproductive system
"true pelvis" is defined as portion of the abdominopelvic cavity inferior to a plane passing through the sacral promontory posteriorly and the superior surface of the pubic bones anteriorly
abdominopelvic cavity is enclosed in a double-walled seromembranous peritoneum
the outer portion of the double-walled seromembranous sac parietal peritoneum
the inner portion of the double-walled seromebranous sac visceral peritoneum
the peritoneum forms folds are called the mesentery and omenta
the space between the two layers of the peritoneum peritoneal cavity and contains fluids
what cavity is behind the peritoneum retroperitoneum
what organs lie in the retroperitoneum kidneys and pancreas
ascities fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity
AAA - abdominal aortic aneurysm localized dilation of abdominal aorta
what is the function of the 2 folds in the peritoneum serve to support the viscera in position
bowel obstruction blockage of bowel lumen
Ileus failure of bowel peristalsis
metastasis transfer of a cancerous lesion from one area to another
pneumoperitoneum presence of air in peritoneal cavity
tumor new tissue growth where cell proliferation is uncontrolled
pathology that is localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta aneurysm
what is the common AP projection of the abdomen with the patient KUB
why is the chest image included as part of the acute abdomen series to rule out free air, bowel obstruction, and infection
what image should be substituted for the upright abdomen radiograph when the patient is unable to stand left lateral decubitus
what is the advantage of the left lateral decubitus position compared with the supine position AP abdomen demonstration of air-fluid levels
what structure of the upper abdomen should be demonstrated on the image diaphragm
for the KUB image, when should respiration be suspended and what effect will that have on the patient on full expiration; elevate the diaphragm
why is it desirable to include the diaphragm in the upright abdomen image to demonstrate free air in the abdomen
which projection does not demonstrate free air levels within the abdomen AP projection with the patient supine
what is the anatomic landmarks and relation to IR in a AP abdomen supine MSP perpendicular to IR; MCP parallel
What breathing instruction should be given for a AP abdomen supine suspend at the end of expiration
to which level of the patient should the central ray be centered for the KUB iliac crest
what is the major advantage of the PA projection of the abdomen over the AP projection of the abdomen the PA projection reduces the exposure dose to the gonads
which side must be demonstrated on an AP abdomen with the patient positioned left lateral decubitus when a pneumoperitoneum is suspected right (free air)
which side must be demonstrated on an AP abdomen with the patient positioned left lateral decubitus when fluid accumulation is being evaluated left
which structures should be examined to see whether the patient was rotated for a lateral projection of the abdomen pelvis and lumbar vertebrae
which of the following is evaluated to check for rotation on an AP projection, supine position image of the abdomen the ala of the ilia are symmetric
how is proper patient alignment evaluated on an AP projection, supine position KUB image of the abdomen the vertebral column in centered in the collimated field
Synovial fluid Thick, yellow, viscous fluid
Symphysis Designed for strength and shock absorption
sthenic 50%- build:mod. heavy, abd.:mod. long., thorax:mod. short, broad and deep. pelvis; small. stomach; high, upper left. gallbladder: centered on right side, upper abd.
asthenic 10%- build: frail, abd.:short. thorax: long, shallow. pelvis: wide. diaphragm:low. stomach: low and medial. gallbladder: low and nearer the midline
hyposthenic 35%- organs and characteristics are intermediate-difficult to classify
hyperstenic 5%-build:massive. abd.:long. thorax: short, broad, deep. pelvis:narrow. stomach: high and in the middle. diaphragm:high. gallbladder: high
human body has how many bones 206
what are the 2 groups the body is divided into axial and appendicular
how many bones in the axial skeleton 80 - skull, neck, thorax, vertebral column, ribs
how many bones in the appendicular skeleton 126 - shoulder girdle, upper limbs, lower limbs, pelvic girdle
bones are composed of a strong, dense outer layer called the compact bone - protects the bone and gives it strength for supporting the body
the inner portion of the bone that is less dense is called the spongy bone
the softer spongy bone contains a spiculated network of interconnecting spaces called the trabeculae
long bones have a central cavity called medullary cavity - which contains trabeculae filled with yellow marrow
in long bones what is concentrated at the ends of the bone and not in the medullary cavity the red marrow
a tough, fibrous connective tissue that covers all bony surfaces except the articular surfaces is called periosteum
what is found in bone marrow tissue occupying the medullary cavity
what is found in the red bone marrow forms red and white blood cells
what is found in the yellow bone marrow replaces red bone marrow in the long bone of adults, contains considerable fat
the tissue lining the medullary cavity of bones is called endosteum
bones that contain various knoblike projections, which are covered by the periosteum is called tubercles or tuberosities
blood vessels and nerves enter and exit the bone through? the periosteum
the opening of the periosteum where blood vessels and nerves enter and exit is called foramina
the term given to the development and formation of bones is called ossification
ossification occurs separately by 2 distinct process called intermembranous and endochondral ossifications
describe intermembranous ossification bones that develop from fibrous membranes in the embryo produce the flat bones(skull,clavicle,sternum)-before birth these bones are not joined its until after birth the flat bones grow and it joins and forms sutures
describe endochondrial develops from hyline cartilage in the embryo and produce short, irregular and long bones - this ossification occurs from 2 distinct centers of development called primary and secondary centers of ossification
describe primary ossification begins before birth and forms the entire bulk of the short and irregular bones-this process forms the long central shaft in the long bones
during the development of the primary center of ossification, the long shaft bone is called diaphysis
describe secondary ossification occurs after birth when a separate bone begins to develop at both ends of each long bone.
in the secondary ossification, each end bone that is developed is called epiphysis
in the secondary ossification the diaphysis and epiphysis are distinctly separated, however during growth a plate of cartilage develops called epiphyseal plate
as full ossification occurs the epiphyseal completely joins, only a moderately visible what appears on the bone epiphyseal line
what are five classifications of bones long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid
describe long bones are only found in limbs, consist of primarily of a long cylindric shaft called the body and two enlarged rounded ends that contain a smooth slippery articular surface(femur,metacarpals/tarsals)-primary function is to provide support
describe short bones bones that contain red marrow and have a thin outer layer of compact bone, carpal bones of the wrist and tarsal bones of the ankle- allow minimum flexibility of motion in a short distance
describe flat bones consist of two tables of compact bone-marrow space between the inner and outer tables contains cancellous bone and red marrow or "diploe" as it is called flat bones (ribs, scapula) - provide protection and their broad surfaces allow muscle attachment
describe irregular bones peculiar shapes and variety of forms(vertebrae and bones in the pelvis, facial) - functions include attachment for muscles, tendons, liagments
describe sesamoid small and oval-expects believe that they alter the direction of muscle pull and decrease friction
arthology study of joints or articulations between bones
what are the two classifications of joints functional and structural
describe functional classification when joints are classified as functional, they are broken down into three classifications - synarthroses, amphiarthroses, diarthroses
synarthroses immovable joints
amphiarthroses slightly movable
diarthroses freely movable
describe structural classification based on the types of tissues that unite or bind the articulating bones - 3 distinct groups based on their connective tissues ; fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial
what are the 3 distinct groups in structural classification based on their connective tissues fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial
describe fibrous joints do not have a joint cavity-syndesmosis, suture, gomphosis are all immovable joints
describe cartilaginous joints either slightly movable or immovable - symphysis(slightly movable), synchondrosis(immovable)
describe synovial joints permit a wide range of motion and they are all freely movable - these joints are the most complex joints in the body
what structure completely surrounds and enfolds all synovial joints to join separate bones together articular capsule
what is the outer layer of the articular capsule called fibrous capsule-the fibrous tissue connects the capsule to the periosteum
what is the inner layer of the articular capsule is called synovial membrane-creates joint cavity - produces synovial fluid
some synovial joints contain a pad of fibrocartilage called meniscus- (shock absorbers)
some synovial joints also contain synovial fluid-filled sacs outside the main joint cavity called bursae - (reduce friction between skin, bones, tendons and muscles)
what are the 6 synovial joints within the structural classification gliding(plane), hinge(giglymus), pivot(trochoid), ellipsoid(condyloid), saddle(sellar), ball and socket (spheroid)
describe glinding (plane) permit slight movement - they have flattened or slightly curved surfaces - ex. intercarpal and intertarsal joints of the wrist
describe hinge (ginglymus) permits only flexion and extension - ex. elbow, knee and ankle
describe pivot (trochoid) joints allow only rotation around a single axis - rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates within a ring formed partially by the other bone - ex. axis of a cervical spine
describe ellipsoid (condyloid) biaxial movement, primary. - movement in 2 directions at right angles to each other - ex. radiocarpal joint of the wrist
describe saddle (sellar) permits movement in 2 axes similar to the ellipsoid - articular surface of one bone is saddle shaped and the articular surface of the other bone is shaped like a rider sitting in a sadle
describe ball and socket (spheroid) permits movement in axes including flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, circumduction and rotation - ex. the hip and shoulder
which terms refers to the study of the function of the body organs physiology
what are the 4 fundamental body planes sagittal, coronal, horizontal, oblique
which plane divides the body into equal right and left halves midsagittal
what are the 2 great cavities of the torso thoracic and abdominal
what is within the thoracic cavity pleural membranes, lungs, trachea, esophagus, pericardium, heart and great vessels
in which quadrant of the abdomen is the appendix located? right lower quadrant
which region of the abdomen is located below the umbilical region hypogastrium
which region of the abdomen is located below the left hypochondrium left lateral
which region of the abdomen is located below the left lateral left inguinal
which region of the abdomen is located below the right hypochondrium right lateral
which region of the abdomen is located below the right lateral right inguinal
examples of long bones tibia, fibula, femur, metatarsals, and phalanges
examples of flat bones occipital, parietal, frontal, nasal, lacrimal, vomer, hip bone (coxal bone), sternum, ribs, and scapulae.
bones are classified according to their shape
which bone classification is the trapezium short
which bone classification consist largely of compact cortex tissue in the form of two plates that enclose a layer of diploe flat
which term refers to a long pointed process styloid
which term for a depression refers to a hole in a bone through which blood vessels and nerves pass? foramen
which term refers to a fracture in which a broken bone projects through the skin open
projection refers to the path of the central ray as it exits the x-ray tube
position a specific patient body position or radiographic position
view the body part as it is seen from the perspective of an x-ray film or other recording media
method denotes the originator of a particular radiographic procedure, or additionally specific placement of the IR and central ray
Created by: Kristina25