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test n measures


2 degrees of freedom, classified as hinge, but isa double condyloid joint because small amount of IR/ER (~10 degrees) occurs during flexion. tibiofemoral joint (knee joint proper )
1 degree of freedom, planar joint ( patella on femoral condyles) patellofemoral joint
femoral condyles articulate with? tibial plateau
tibia bears_________ weight
fibula is the attachment for _______ and ________. muscles and ligament
anteromedial bundle is tight in flexion and the posterolateral bundle is tight in extension ACL
limits anterior translation of tibia on femur, hyperextension, and rotation. posterolateral bundle
limits anterior translation of tibia on femur when knee is flexed. (anterior drawer test) anteromedial bundle
sesamoid bone, embedded in quadriceps and patellar tendon, serves as a pulley- improve angle of pull- results in advantage of knee extension. patella
name the 4 muscles of the quadriceps group. rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis
O- rectus femoris (AIIS), others femur, I- patella , tibia tubercle quadriceps
located lateral to the quadriceps . name his muscle. iliotibial band (ITB)
name the 3 muscles of the hamstring group. biceps femoris, semitendinosus , semimembranosus
biceps femoris inserts on? fibular head
semimembranosus inserts on ? medial tibial condyle
O- ischial tuberosity , femur ( biceps femoris- short head), I- tibia , fibula ( biceps femoris- long head) hamstring group
hamstring group, popliteal fossa, gastrocnemius ( medial/lateral heads) are all adductors
"goose foot" attaches to gracilis , sartorius, semitendinosus , pes anserinus bursa ( lies under attachments) ,medial location. pes anserinus bursa
locking mechanism as the knee nears terminal extension screw-home mechanism
automatic rotation of the tibia externally (~10 degrees) during the last 20 degrees of knee extension screw-home mechanism
femoral condyles are different sizes, so medial condyle has larger surface area. screw- home mechanism
knee extends, tibia glides anteriorly on femur screw-home mechanism
when lateral condyle stops moving posteriorly, medial condyle, continues to glide resulting in ER of the tibia utilizing the lateral meniscus as the pivot point. screw-home mechanism
ACL and PCL are rotary guides and forms a closed- packed postion for the knee joint screw-home mechanism
______ to anteromedial leg and medial foot saphenous nerve
_______ cutaneous nerve to lateral thigh lateral femoral
the largest branch of lumbar plexus; descends through the fibers of the psoas , then between psoas and iliacus, and under the inguinal ligament into the thigh. femoral nerve
divided into posterior and anterior divisions is the ______ nerve femoral
the largest cutaneous branch of the femoral nerve saphenous nerve
comes directly off of lumbar plexus lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to lateral thigh
______ innervates semitendinosus , semimembranosus , biceps femoris (long head) tibia divison
______ innervates biceps femoris ( short head) common fibular divison
contains fibers from both the anterior and posterior divisions of the lumbosacral plexus and innervates ER group ( except piriformis and quadratus femoris) sciatic nerve
patella sits high patella alta
______ is associated with idiopathic retropatellar pain, recurrent patellar dislocation, patellar cuondromalacia, joint effusion. petalla alta
patella sit low petalla baja
_______ is associated with, restricted ROM, crepitation, retropatellar pain, quadriceps dysfunction patella baja
patellae face inward squinting patellae
patellae face outward frog-eyed patellae
hyperextension of the knee (Michelle G) genu recurvatum
formed by the Lon axes of the femur and the tibia: represents natural valgus of the knee (males- 13 and female - 18) Q-angle
inward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or body part in reference to midline (bow-legged) genuvarum
outward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or body part in reference to midline (knot kneed) genuvalgum
knee appears hollow on either side, slight indentation above patella, small amount of fluid makes area disappear- larger effusions=proximal to patella anterior knee extended
asses ______ for tenderness, edema, and warmth anterior knee
palpate the insertion of the ________ on the tibial tubercle in adolescents (location of pain in Osgood-Schiatter Syndrome) patellar tendon
assess for tenderness along entire course of ligament from orgin on medial femoral condyle to insertion on proximal tibia medial knee flexed
______ is 3 finger width inferior to medial joint line; contains insertion site for the sartorius , gracilis ,and semitendinosus muscles. pes anserine bursa
you can see the patella, head of fibula, and tibial tuberosity when the_______ anterior knee is flexed
you can see the tibial tubercle, joint line medial tibial condyle, patella, medial femoral condyle when the________ medial knee is flexed
you can see the quadriceps , head of the fibula, patella, Gerdy's tubercle and tibial tubercule when the_______ lateral knee is flexed
______ and _____ are more easily palpated with the knee in 90 degrees of flexion LCL and lateral joint line
______ originates on the lateral femoral epicondyle and inserts on fibular head. LCL
leg to the back knee extension
knee flexed to the back knee flexion
knee flexed to back and foot outwards ER
knee flexed to back and foot inwards IR
1) greater trochanter 2) lateral epicondyle( femur) 3) lateral malleolus (fibula) is for? knee ROM
axis- lateral epicondyle (femur), stationary arm- lateral midline of femur (greater trochanter reference), moving arm- lateral midline of fibula flexion and extension
when measuring knee ________ place towel under ankle to allow for hyperextension. extension
135 to 140 can be up to 150 degrees. this is a normal range for? flexion and extension
in knee extension, make sure hip doesn't hike up causing the _______ to come up off the table. rectus femoris
when measuring the knee, keep thigh stable and pelvis in neutral for ? hamstrings
in knee flexion, the end of ROM can be attained with ? PROM
knee extension is _____. many individuals have some hyperextension 0
greatest range of voluntary knee rotation occurs at _____ of flexion 90 degrees
0-30 is what kind of rotation? IR
0-45 is what kind of rotation? ER
the ________ are so strong that manual muscle testing for knee flexion is not as accurate in a Grade 5. quadriceps
knee ______ involves biceps femoris, semimembranosus and semitendinosus. all are innervated by the tibial nerve except? flexion/ biceps femoris (short head) - common fibular nerve
prone with knee flexed (leg in IR) isolation of medial hamstrings (ST and SM)
prone with knee flexed (leg in ER) isolation of lateral hamstrings (biceps femoris)
if biceps femoris is stronger than the medial hamstring, leg will? ER during knee flexion
if ST and SM are stronger than the biceps femoris, the leg will? IR during knee flexion
if hip flexes at end of knee flexion ROM, check for ? tight rectus femoris
knee flexion substitution: butt will rise as hip flexors hip flexion
knee flexion substitution: hip flexes and ER sartorius
knee flexion substitution: hip adducts gracilis
knee flexion substitution: can assist knee flexion if foot is allowed to strongly DF (tenodesis effect) gastrocnemius
knee _________ uses rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis longus! vastus medialis oblique . extension
to prevent patients pelvis from rising during testing, patient may be secured to seating by a ? belt or strap
to __________ , quads can be testing with chair stand test- strength needed to rise from chair without arms is? assess functional strength/ 1/2 body weight
1 - rep max leg press (can be used to confirm age and sex-appropriate strength) quantitative method of quad strength
when patient SL, he/she may use hip _____ to substitute for quadriceps IR
a _____ in the ability to keep the knee locked when performing SLR is indicative of VMO weakness. also know as extensor lag. lag
possible landmarks: mid-patellar, superior/ inferior patellar facet, femoral condyles. swelling, or atrophy could make a difference. what is this measurement? girth
by moving the patellar from side to side, if there is pain or contract the quad, then this test match indicate subluxation or dislocation. what test is this? patellar apprehension test
by squeezing the fluid together and tapping on patella can be an indication of swelling. name this test Ballotable/ tap and sweep tests
examiner passively flexes patients hip and knee maximally, then applies a circular motion with tibia, rotating tibia clockwise and counterclockwise. a positive finding for pain, grinding or clicking indicates meniscus tear medial-lateral grind test
examiner applies downward and inferior pressure on patella, the patient attempts to contract quads. a positive finding for pain or inability to complete test indicates cuondromalacia. patellar grind test (Clarke's Sign)
medial knee pain or increase valgus movement with a diminished/absent endpoint as compared to uninvolved side- damage to MCL, PCL and posteromedial capsule,(full knee extension) and MCL ( knee in 20-30 degrees flexion) Valgus Stress Test (MCL)
lateral knee pain or increased varus movement with a diminished/absent endpoint as compared to the uninvolved side - damage to LCL, PCL and arcuate complex (full knee extension) and LCL (knee in 20-30 degrees of flexion) Varus Stress Test (LCL)
a positive finding for excessive anterior translation of the tibia compared to uninvolved side was th a diminished/ absent endpoint is indicative of a partial or complete ACL tear. Lachman's Test
excessive anterior translation of the tibia as compared with uninvolved side with a diminished/ absent endpoint is indicative of a partial or complete ACL. (4 smaller hands) anterior draw test (ACL)
increased posterior tibial displacement as compared to other knee is indicative of a partial or complete tear of PCL. posterior drawer test (PCL)
a positive finding for click at medial joint line= medial meniscus tear or click at lateral joint= lateral meniscus tear(false positives) Mcmurray Test
a positive finding for clicking, or restriction is indicative of medial or lateral meniscus tear depending on location of symptoms..(can test for ligamentous structures) Apley's Compression Test
Created by: Shannon10