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knee, ankle, foot

distal femur, proximal tibia, proximal fibula, patella are _________ of the knee? osteology
medial and lateral condyle are located _______ the medial and lateral epicondyle in the distal femur. below
_________ lies between the articular surfaces of the medial and lateral condyles of the distal femur. intercondylar notch
the path of contact of the patella is the ____________ intercondylar groove
proximal tibia; on both sides of the tibia are________ and _________ condyles of the tibia. medial and lateral
lateral and medial intercondylar tubercles are part of the __________ intercondylar eminence
anterior surface of the tibia is the __________ tibia tuberosity
the fibular head and tibia at the proximal fibula form what joint? tibiofemoral joint
this firm, distal attachment of the LCL and biceps femoris muscle is what joint? tibiofemoral joint
what type of bone is the patella? seasmoid bone
the superior pole accepts the quadriceps at the ? patella
the inferior pole accepts the proximal side of the patella ligament / tendon at the ? patella
the posterior articular surface articulates with the ___________ of the femur through the medial and lateral facets. intercondylar groove
the articulation between the tibia and femur is what type of joint? tibiofemoral joint
the articulation between the patella and femur is what type of joint? patellofemoral joint
tibiofemoral joint allows _____ degrees of freedom. 2
tibiofemoral is what kind of joint? condyloid joint
(flexion and extension )- on what plane of motion and axis of rotation does this motion occur? medial- lateral , saggital
tibiofemoral hyperextension is ________ to __________ flexion. 0-5 degrees (hyperextension ), 0-140 degrees (flexion)
(IR and ER)- on what plane of motion and axis of rotation does this motion occur and called axial rotation? transverse , vertical
_________ arthrokinematics is based on the concave tibial condyles rotating around the convex condyles of the femur. open-chain
_________ extension is based on a roll-and- slide pattern occurring in opposite directions. closed-chain
________ and ________ are accompanied by slight rotational movements. flexion and extension
the knee nears full extension, the knee rotates externally about ________ degrees . 10-15 degrees
automatic rotation assists in "locking" the knee is called the ? screw- home mechanism
articulation formed between the posterior surface of the patella and the intercondylar groove of the femur is what type of joint? patellofemoral joint
what joint improves the moment arm for the quadriceps ? patellofemoral joint
after a patellectomy, the quadriceps must produce ____% more force. 25%
an increased muscle force may cause fatigue , or damage to _________ joint. patellofemoral joint
tibiofemoral open packed position is ______ degrees of flexion and _____ extention and ER. 25 and full
the neck and the shaft of the femur are the ? angle of inclination
what impact does the angle of inclination have on the knee? knot kneed or bow legged
the femur usually meets the tibia to form a lateral angle of 170-175 . this is called ? normal genu valgum
genu valgum for knot kneed is less than ______ degrees. 170 degrees
genu varum for bow legged is greater than _______ degrees. 180 degrees
cruciate means_______? cross
this ligament resists anterior translation of the tibia relative to a fixed femur. name the ligament? Also you can test this ligament by using the anterior draw test. ACL
this ligament resists posterior translation of the tibia relative to a fixed femur. name the ligament? Also you can test this ligament by using the posterior draw test. PCL
this ligament spans medial side of the knee and resists valgus producing forces : some fibers attach to the medial meniscus. name this ligament. MCL
this ligament spans lateral side of the knee and resists varus producing forces. name this ligament? LCL
this structure prevents hyperextension and includes 2 major ligaments: arcuate popliteal ligament and oblique popliteal ligament ( back of knee). what structure is this? posterior capsule
crescent- shaped fibrocartilaginous discs. this is the _______ and ________ meniscus medial and lateral
absorbs compressive forces across the knee caused by muscular contraction and body weight is the ______ and ________ meniscus. medial and lateral
this structure reduces pressure across the knee and "deepens" the knee socket, further stabilizing the joint. what is this structure? medial and lateral meniscus
the inner 1/3 essentially avascular ( no blood flow) is located in the ________ and ________ meniscus . medial and lateral
meniscus connects to the ? MCL
this nerve supplies sole source of innervation to the quadriceps . name the nerve. femoral nerve
this nerve innervates the semitendinosus , semimembranosus , and long head of the biceps femoris . name the nerve. sciatic nerve (tibia portion)
this nerve innervates the short head of the biceps femoris. name the nerve. sciatic nerve ( peroneal portion)
this nerve innervates most of the hip adductor muscles. name the nerve. obturator nerve
this angle describes overall line of force of the quadriceps relative to the knee. the normal is 15 degrees . what is this angle? Q- angle
the larger the angle, the greater the lateral force on the patella. this is the ? Q-angle
excessive lateral tracking of the patella increases pressure and friction within PFJ. name the angle. Q-angle
________ Q-angle is greater than men because of child bearing hips; greater pull on the knee. women
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius (deep) are knee______? extensors
semimembranosus , semitendinosus , biceps femoris ( long and short heads), gracilis, sartorius , gastrocnemius , plantaris, and popliteal are all knee______ flexors
unlocking the knee is associated with what muscle? popliteal
semimembranosus , semitendinosus , gracilis , sartorius and popliteal are all knee______ IR
long and short head of biceps femoris are both knee _______ ER
squatting _______ the forces at the force at the PFJ due to the strong activation of the quadriceps . proper form is essential. increase
when you squat, you feel pressure in your _______ heels
what can result when one has tight hamstrings? posterior pelvic tilt
How do you properly stretch the hamstrings ? stabilize the pelvis, preventing excessive posterior pelvic tilt
you see this more in boys and fragments of immature bone are pulled from the tibia tuberosity . what disease is this ? osgood- schiatter disease
MCL, LCL,PCL, and ACL can have ________ injury. ligamentous
ACL (torque), MCL, and medial meniscus are all _________ terrible triad
partial knee replacement is linked to a painful ________ total knee replacement
unable to extend the knee through the last 15-20 degrees is _________ extensor lag
___________ of the knee knee flexors and they can be done by passively extending the knee. clinical conditions
what makes the ankle and foot so incredible? mobility and stabilize foundation
superior to the talus. name the bone. distal tibia
distal tibia, distal fibula , tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges are all osteology of the _______ and _______ foot and ankle
superior to calcaneus. name the bone. distal fibula
inferior to the talus. name the bones. tarsals
distal to the tarsals. name the bones. metatarsals
distal to the metatarsals. name the bones. phalanges
on the medial side of the tibia. name the bone. medial malleolus
on the lateral side of the fibula. name the bone. lateral malleolus
the membrane between the tibia and fibula. what is this structure? interosseous membrane
anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments are located in the _______ and ______ of the tibia and fibula. front and back
how many tarsal bones are there and name them. 7, talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, medial , intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms
the talus consists of a "tale cruel joint" called trochlea
the calcaneus consists of 2 parts. what are they? tuberosity and sustentaculum tali
the shaft to hold the talus in place is called? sustentaculum tali
the 2nd Ray is more proximal because it has more? stability
metatarsals have a base that is _______ and a shaft, head is _______. concave and convex
what are the fundamental movements of the foot and ankle and what plan does this occur? DF, PF, abduction, adduction (saggital plane)
this applied movement is combined movement of eversion, abduction, and DF. what is the movement? pronation
this applied movement is combined movement of inversion, adduction and PF. what is the movement? supination
name the 3 proximal joints of the ankle and foot. talocrural, subtalar, transverse tarsal
name the 3 distal joints of the ankle and foot. tarsometatarsal, metatarsophalangeal, interphalangeal
created by the articulation between the trochlea (dome) of the talus and the concavity formed by the distal tibia and fibula. what is this structure? mortise (talocrural joint)
1 degree of freedom permitting ankle DF and PF. name the joint and what plane does the motion occur in? talocrural joint and saggital plane
what are the normal ranges of talocrural joint DF and PF? DF- 0-20 degrees and PF- 0-50,60 degrees
_________( talocrural joint ) DF and PF occur as the convex trochlea rolls and slides in _________ direction within the concave mortise. open- chain / opposite
with the foot fixed, the concavity formed by the mortise rolls and slides in the _______ direction over the convex dome of the talus. this is _______. same/ closed- chain
name 5 structures that support the talocrural joint. interosseous membrane, anterior and posterior tibiofibial ligaments, deltoid ligament, LCL
binds distal tibiofibular joint and also is injuried in a high ankle sprain. name 2 ligaments. anterior and posterior tibiofibial ligaments
this ligament has 3 fibers and limits what motion because it is a supporting structure of the talocrural joint. name the ligament and motion. deltoid/ eversion
this ligament is composed of anterior talofibular, posterior talofibular and calcaneofibular and also limits what motion because it is a supporting structure of the talocrural joint. name the ligament and motion. LCL/ inversion
______ is the most strongest ligament in the body LCL
what is the most and least stable position of the talocrural joint? DF(most stable), PF (least stable)
articulation between the facets on the inferior surface of the talus and matching facets on the superior surface of the calcaneus. name the joint and what type of joint. subtalar joint (plane joint)
allows combined motions of inversion/ adduction and eversion/ abduction of foot. name the joint. subtalar joint
what are the normal values for inversion and eversion of the subtalar joint? inversion- 0- 25, 30 and eversion 0-15
lateral malleolus limits what motion? eversion
when looking from the back, calcaneal valgus is more to the____? right
when looking from the back, calcaneal varus is more to the ____? left
consists of the talonavicular and caicaneocuboid joints and also permits the most pure form of pronation and supination. name his tarsal. transverse tarsal (midtarsal )joint
articulation of the metatarsal bases with the distal surfaces of 3 cuneiforms and cuboid (4th and 5th metatarsals) and is the 2nd most stable due to osseous anatomy. name this joint. tarsometatarsal joint (distal joint of foot)
formed between the convex head of the metatarsals and the shallow concavity of the proximal phalanges. name the joint. metatarsophalangeal joints (MTP)
biaxial condyloid joins and how many degrees of freedom are there? Metatarsophalangeal joints (MTP)/ 2
what are the normal ranges of the 1st MTP motion? DF- 90 degrees (closed pack position ) and PF- 0-30,35 degrees
flexion/ extension and abduction/ adduction is reference for the___ toe. 2nd
each toe has a proximal and distal interphalangeal joint with the exception of the great toe. name this joint. interphalangeal joint
what type of joint, motion and normal ranges of motion occur for the interphalangeal joint? hinge/ DF and PF/ 0 degrees or neutral position
talocrural joint open packed position ________ and closed packed position _______. open packed - mid inversion/ eversion and 10 degrees PF and closed packed- full DF
subtalar joint open packed postion_______ and closed packed postion ________. open packed -mid inversion/ eversion and 10 degrees PF and closed packed- full inversion
midtarsal joint open packed postion_________ and closed packed postion_________. open packed -mid inversion / eversion and 10 degrees PF and closed packed - full supination
MTP open packed postion ________ and closed packed________. open packed - neutral and closed packed - full extension
IP open packed postion________ and closed packed _______. open packed- slight flexion and closed packed -full extension
______ muscles of the foot are arranged into anterior, lateral, and posterior compartments. extrinsic
each carport net is innervated by the tibial or common peroneal nerve arising from the sciatic nerve. what type of muscle is this? extrinsic
tibial nerve bifurcated into the medial and lateral plantar nerves. what type of muscle is this? intrinsic
these nerves innervate all intrinsic muscles of the foot , except for the extentensor digitorum brevis ( innervated by deep branch of peroneal nerve). what type of muscle is this? intrinsic
______ muscles have both proximal and distal attachments within the foot. intrinsic
muscles have proximal attachments within the lower leg or distal femur, and or distal attachments within the foot. extrinsic
________ provide static control, dynamic thrust, and shock absorption to the distal lower extremity. muscles
name 3 extrinsic muscles of the foot and ankle. anterior , lateral, posterior compartment
tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, peroneus tertius are muscles of what compartment ? anterior compartment
peroneus longus and peroneus brevis are both apart of what compartment ? lateral compartment
gastrocnemius , soleus, and plantaris are in the superficial group (triceps sure) and all apart of what compartment ? posterior compartment
tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus are in the deep group and all part of what compartment ? posterior compartment
____ muscles that originate and insert within the foot are largely responsible for the actions of the toes. intrinsic
as a group these muscles stabilize the foot during push-off phase of walking or running. name the muscle group. intrinsic
dorsum foot muscles includes extensor digitorum brevis is in the ______ muscle group. intrinsic
instrinsic foot muscles (plantar aspect) : flexor digitorum brevis, abductor hallucis and abductor digiti minimi are part of the ______ layer. 1st
intrinsic foot muscles (plantar aspect) : quadratus plantae and four lumbricals are part of the _______ layer. 2nd
intrinsic foot muscles (plantar aspect): adductor hallucis, flexor hallucis brevis, and flexor digit minimi are part of the ______ layer. 3rd
intrinsic foot muscles (plantar aspect): dorsal and plantar interossei are part of the ______ layer. 4th
___ is composed of primarily slow-twitch muscle fibers best equipped for standing or controlling "postural sway". (1 joint) soleus
______ is composed of more fast- twitch muscle fibers best equipped for sprinting and jumping. (2 joint) gastrocnemius
_______ functions as a second class lever system, providing a mechanical system that favors strength over speed and range of motion. large moment arm of the gastrocnemius .( rising up on toes) plantar flexors
a condition that may affect muscles attached to the medial and posterior sides of the tibia. name the condition. shin splints
MTSS stands for? Medial Tense Stress Syndrome
if the dorsiflexors are untrained or the mechanics of the foot and ankle are faulty, these muscles may become inflamed through overuse. name the condition . shin splints
excessive pronation of the foot during running or walking often excerbates or contributes to _______. shin splints
lateral sprains more common than medial sprains (distal fibula- lateral malleolus ). what type of sprain. ankle sprain
why are lateral sprains more common than medial sprains? lateral ligaments are thinner than medial ligaments
ankle dislocation, bi- malleolar or tri- malleolar are conditions of the ______ and _______. foot and ankle
precursor to rupture of Achilles tendon. name the condition. Achilles tendinitis
pain in the heel, worse upon waking in the morning and the plantar facia supports the medial longitudinal arch and acts as a shock absorber. name the condition. plantar fasciitis
foot "drops" into plantar flexion as leg is advanced during swing phase of gait. name the condition . drop foot
in order to prevent foot from dragging, often a "high stepping" gait is performed that appears like stepping over an imaginary obstacle. name the condition. drop foot
deformity where the distal end points laterally (bunyon). name the condition. hallucis valgus
DJD of the 1st MTP joint. name the condition . hallucis rigidus
PIP flexed, DIP extended. name the condition. hammer toe
PIP extended, DIP flexed. name the condition . mallet toe
both PIP and DIP are flexed. name the condition . claw toe
pain at the metatarsal heads (any pain in the region) .name the condition. metatarsaigia
pressure on the plantar digital nerves ( high heels). name the condition . Morton's Neuroma
traumatic hyperextension of 1st MTP. name the condition . turf toe
Created by: Shannon10



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