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1. What is meant by latent period? period of time after exposure to x-rays and first clinical symptoms of exposure
2. What phrase is represented by the acronym ALARA? As Low As Reasonably Achievable
3. Why do x-rays pose a health hazard to humans? some of the x-ray energy is transferred to the tissues as it passes through
4. Which parts of the body are listed as especially sensitive to damage from x-radiation? small lymphocyte, bone marrow, reproductive cells, intestinal mucosa, skin, lens of eye, oral mucosa
5. Which two tissue types are especially sensitive to x-rays but should not be damaged by dental x-radiation? reproductive and fetus
6. What is the recommendation for filtering a 90 k V x-ray machine? 2.5 mm of aluminum equivalent
7. What is the recommendation for filtering a 65 k V x-ray machine? 1.5 mm of aluminum equivalent
8. What is the safety implication of using a longer PID? less radiation to the patient*s skin
9. Does the use of a film holding device contribute to patient safety? yes, especially if it has a beam alignment device - helps minimize retakes
10. What is the best position for the operator during exposures? behind a suitable barrier, such as lead or slump block
11. If barriers are inadequate, what is the best position for the operator during exposure? at least 6 feet away, 90 to 135 degrees from the source of the beam
12. When should the operator hold the film in the patient's mouth? never
13. When should the lead apron and thyroid collar be used? every patient and every exposure AND when another person is holding a child during an exposure
14. What is the MPD formula? MPD = 50 mSv x N (N = age in years and 50 mSv is max dose/yr for radiation workers)
15. What is the maximum permissible dose of radiation per year? 50 mSv; aka 5 rems; aka .05 Sv
16. What is the purpose for a film badge? record the amount and type of radiation received within a specific period of time
17. Who has custodial rights to the radiographs? the dentist only
18. What is meant by property rights? the dentist and the patient
19. What is meant by informed consent? the pt. is fully conscious & alert & understands & consents after procedure has been explained, the necessity, what the risks are & what effect the lack of high-quality diagnostic films may have on treatment & prognosis
20. What is implied consent? patient gives blanket consent to have any and all treatment and diagnosis performed without necessarily knowing the specifics of each individual procedure
21. What unit of measurement is for absorbed doses? rad or gray
22. What unit of measurement is for exposure? R (Roentgen unit)
23. What unit of measurement is for dose equivalent? rem or sievert
24. What is meant by cumulative effects of radiation? each exposure to radiation never fully repairs, damage from radiation continues to accumulate
25. What is the term given to cells that are easily damaged by x-rays? radiosensitive
26. What is the term given to cells that are resistant to the damaging effects of x-rays? radioresistant
27. What is an ion? atom or chemical bearing an electrical charge, either negative or positive
28. What is a free radical? a compound produced when an x-ray photon interacts with water and oxygen causing radiolysis
29. What are the effects of chronic exposure to x-rays? cataracts, leukemia, cancer to thyroid, salivary gland and skin, genetic abnormalities
30. What is the skin dose delivered during a single periapical exposure? 1.75 - 3.75 mGy, depending upon kVp and cone length (SFD)
31. What effect does changing the PID length have on the radiation delivered to the patient? longer PID length reduces the amount of exposure to the patient*s skin
Created by: Sandys