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Radiology

4-Jolene

QuestionAnswer
1. What is the term for an energy form that travels the speed of light? photon
2. How is Bremsstrahlung radiation produced? electron speeds close to the nucleus and high quality energy is released
3. How is characteristic radiation produced? electron speeds close the inner orbit electrons and high quality energy is released
4. What type of radiation is x-radiation? electromagnetic
5. How fast does x-radiation travel? speed of light; 186,000 miles per second
6. List the characteristics and properties of x-radiation. penetrate matter; produce a latent image; produce fluorescence;produce ionization; travel in straight lines; travel the speed of light; interact with electrons; interact with matter to produce scatter radiation
7. What can be done to increase the amount of x-radiation emitted from the machine? increase the mA or the exposure time or both (mAs = mA x exp time in seconds
8. What can be done to increase the quality of x-radiation emitted from the machine? increase kVp
9. How will the radiograph be affected if the mA is decreased? lighter - lower in density
10. How will the radiograph be affected if the kVp is increased? lower contrast (longer gray scale); darker - higher in density
11. How will the radiograph be affected if the mA is increased? darker - higher in density
12. How will the radiograph be affected if the kVp is decreased? higher contrast (shorter gray scale); lighter - lower in density
13. What is the purpose of the focusing cup? direct the electrons towards the focal spot on the target during x-ray production
14. Where do x-rays originate? the focal spot of the target on the anode side of the x-ray tube located in the tubehead
15. What is the purpose of the filter? remove long wavelength x-rays of low penetrating ability
16. What is the purpose for the collimator? control the size and shape of the x-ray beam
17. What exposure setting determines the wavelength of the x-ray? kVp
18. What quality of the x-ray is changed when the wavelength is changed? penetrating ability (wavelength)
19. What type of collimator is recommended by the ADA? Rectangular
20. What is stated by the inverse square law? intensity of the x-ray beam decreases inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source (as the beam gets farther from the tube, it gets larger AND less concentrated)
21. What is meant by short scale contrast? higher contrast radiograph with fewer shades of gray evident
22. What is meant by long scale contrast? lower contrast radiograph with more shades of gray evident
23. What exposure setting affects the contrast scale? kilovoltage - kVp
24. What quality of the radiographic image will be affected by patient movement and film movement? sharpness aka definition
25. What is the purpose for the filament? form electron cloud when machine is turned *on*, making available electrons for x-ray production
26. What is the first thing that should be done if the x-ray machine malfunctions? turn it off
27. How is the machine tested for tubehead drift? move the tubehead into various postions and see if it remains or drifts
28. What is recommended if the tubehead drifts? have it repaired; in the meantime, do not use it
Created by: Sandys