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Memory

TermDefinition
Encoding, storage, retrieval 3 aspects of memory
Encoding First aspect of memory
Attention Focusing awareness on a narrow range of stimuli or events. Can be compared to a filter
Inattentional blindness Failure to notice a fully-visible, but unexpected object because attention was engaged on another task, event, or object.
Selective attention Purposely conscious awareness onto specific stimulus thereby ignoring other things.
Early selection of attention Being screened during sensory input
Late selection of attention Being screened after brian processes info (Like cocktail party effect)
Structural processing A visual processing, like how words look, which lasts shortests in memory
Phonemic processing An acoustical processing, like how words sound,
Semantic processing A processing involving meaning which lasts longest in memory
Elaboration Linking stimulus with other info at time of encoding
Self-referent Deciding whether and how information is personally relevant
Visual imagery Helps memory by dual-encoding it with see-able information
Sensory Memory Preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually fraction of second
Short term memory Limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for about 20 seconds. Mental or verbal repetition helps maintain it. Usually 5-9 items in list
Chunking Grouping of information into meaningful units for easier handling by short term memory
Long term memory Unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time
Flashbulb memories Usually vivid and detailed memories of momentous events
Primacy effect Being able to remember terms near the beginning of a sequence
Recency effect Being able to remember terms near the end of a sequence
Serial position effect Forgetting the middle terms in a sequence
Clustering Tendency to remember similar or related items in a group
Conceptual heirarchies Multilevel classification system based on common properties among items
Schema An organized cluster of knowledge of a particular object / event abstracted from precious knowledge with object or events (a script)
Semantic network Consists of nodes representing concepts joined together by paths that link related networks
Tip of the tongue phenomenon Temporary inability to recall something you know accompanied by the feeling that it is just out of reach.
Context clues When memory is tied to a place
Mood congruent Retrieval of memory is better for information consistent with your current mood
Source monitoring error Memory derived from one source attributed to another source
Cryptomnesia Inadvertent plagiarism, when people think they have original idea, that was something they'd heard of before.
Reality monitoring Wondering if something actually happened or you imagined it
Ebbinghaus curve of forgetting States that over time, an exponentially decreasing % of memory is forgotten
Retention The amount of material remembered
Recall memory A type of retention that involves no clues, like an essay or fill-in-the-blank
Recognition measure A type of retention involving clues like a multiple-choice-test
Ineffective coding Called pseudo forgetting when an event might have not been inserted into your memory in the first place most likely b/c done unconsciuosly
Decay theory Idea that memories fade over time (works with short term memory and sensory memory, not long-term)
Interference theory Idea that info is forgotten because of competition from other material, especially when materials studied are very similar
Retroactive interference When new information impairs the retention of previously learned information
Proactive interference When old information impairs the retention of newly learned information
Encoding specificity principle States that for certain types of remembering used (semantic / phonetic), cuing meaning, sound, etc. will help memory most.
James McConnell Created a conditioned response from a flatworm to contract when exposed to light, then gave RNA from that worm to another, who responded
Alzheimer's Disease linked to inadequate synthesis of glutamate / acetylcholine, which are needed for memory
Thomson Created a conditioned eye blink response in rabbits, but if a small part in cerebellum was destroyed, it no longer responded
Long-term potentation A long-lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along specific neural pathway, which happens when memory forms
Retrograde amnesia When a person loses memory for events that happen before the accident, which can last from minutes to years
Anterograde amnesia When a person loses memory for events that happen after the accident, so they can no longer form memories
Consolidation Conversion of info into longer lasting memory codes
Implicit memory Also called unconscious remembering, when retention does not require intentional remembering. Is unaffected by alcohol, amnesia, nor age. Assessed indirectly by relearning tests
Explicit memory Intentional recollection of previous experience
Declarative memory Type of remembering involving factual information (semantic and episodic)
Procedural memory Type of remembering for actions, skills, operations, and conditioned responses, more related with implicit (unintentional) memory
Episodic memory Remembrance of chronological recollections of personal experience
Semantic memory Remembrance of general knowledge, which is not tied to when the information was learned
Post traumatic stress disorder When traumatic events create strong memories that are hard to forget
Freud Believed that painful memories are pushed into the unconscious and forgotten
Overlearning Continued rehearsal of material after you appear to have mastered it
Distributed practice Remembering by studying over several days
Method of Loci Remembering several pieces of info by associating an image with a different location
Prospective memory Remembering to perform acts in the future
Retrospective memory Remembering events in the past
Created by: uriel_magana