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Plant Cells

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Cell Membrane Thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell but is inside the cell wall. It allows some substances to pass into the cell and blocks others.
Cell Wall A thick, rigid membrane that surrounds a plant cell and gives it most of its support and structure. Several bond together to form the structure of the plant.
Chloroplast An organelle containing chlorophyll. Photosynthesis (sun energy is converted into chemical energy) takes place here.
Chlorophyll A green molecule that can use light energy from sunlight to turn water and carbon dioxide gas into glucose and oxygen.
Cytoplasm The jellylike material outside of the cell nucleus in which the organelles are found.
Golgi Body An organelle located near the nucleus which changes, processes, and packages proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for export from a cell.
Lysosome Vesicles containing digestive enzymes where digestion of cell nutrients occurs.
Mitochondrion Organelle that converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a high energy molecule, for use by the cell.
Nuclear Membrane The membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
Nucleolus an organelle within the nucleus. Ribosomal RNA is produced here, then exported into the cytoplasm where it forms the ribsosomes.
Nucleus It contains mostly DNA in chromosomes and controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis).
Ribosome Small organelles composed of RNA and are sites of of protein synthesis.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum This ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. It transports materials and produces proteins, which are sent to the Golgi body or sent into the cell membrane).
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum This ER buds off from the rough ER. It produces lipids and membrane proteins, moving the newly made proteins and lipids to the Golgi body for further processing and into the cell membrane.
Vacuole A large, membrane-bound space within a plant cell that is filled with fluid, mostly water. Most plant cell have one of these that takes up much of the cell. It helps maintain water balance and shape of it.
Created by: AnneD