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Classical conditioning When stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response originally evoked by another stimulus.
Unconditioned stimulus Evokes a response without being accustomed, like with food.
Unconditioned response An unlearned response to the to an unconditioned stimulus, like excitement for food.
Conditioned stimulus A previously neutral stimulus that acquires an ability to evoke a response by being paired with an unconditioned stimulus, like a bell for food
Conditioned response A learned response to the conditioned stimulus, like excitement after hearing bell for food.
Acquisition Process by which an conditioned and unconditioned stimulus are presented in order to produce an unconditioned response.
Simultaneous conditioning Presenting the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus at the same time.
Short delayed conditioning Presenting the conditioned stimulus a half second before the unconditioned stimulus - this is best way of acquisition
Trace conditioning Presenting the unconditioned stimulus after the conditioned stimulus ends
Aversion therapy An application to classical conditioning when alcohol/drug is mixed with nausea-producing-drug
Advertising An application to classical conditioning when a product is paired with a model so an unconditioned response occurs
Generalization Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus, like how Albert did to the mask or scarf
Discrimination A learned ability to distinguish between the conditioned stimulus and other similar stimuli
Extinction (Classical) Weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response
Spontaneous recovery The reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus. Usually a weaker response.
Operant conditioning When a behavior is enacted for a desired outcome. Also called instrumental learning.
Thorndike's law of effect States that some kind of response is instrumental in obtaining a required outcome, like a puzzle box, where a cat has to pull a lever to get food
Skinner's box A cage where responses are recorded and consequences are controlled.
Reinforcement Skinner says this occurs when a consequence leads to an event that increases an organism's tendency to make that response
Shaping Reinforcement with closer and closer approximations of a desired respose
Extinction (Operant) When a reinforcement is stopped, and there is a brief surge, like smashing a button, in responding followed by a gradual decrease
Delayed reinforcement Shows that the longer the delay of a response, the slower conditioning occurs
Positive Reinforcement Something is added in order to increase behavior
Negative Reinforcement Something is removed in order to increase behavior
Positive Punishment Something is added in order to decrease behavior
Negative Punishment Something is removed in order to decrease behavior
Continuous reinforcement When every instance of a designated response is rewarded
Intermittent / partial reinforcement When response is only rewarded some of the time, which is more realistic.
Fixed ratio reinforcement When reward happens after set number of responses
Variable ratio reinforcement When reward happens after a unpredictable number of responses
Fixed interval reinforcement When first response is rewarded after set time period
Variable interval reinforcement When first response is rewarded after unpredictable time period.
Primary reinforcers Used to reinforce because they satisfy biological needs, like food and sleep
Secondary reinforcers Acquire the ability to reinforce because they are associated with biological needs, like money and praise.
Higher order conditioning When a conditioned stimulus functions as an unconditioned stimulus in order to establish new conditioning
Instinctive drift When animal's innate response tendencies interfere with the conditioning process, like raccoons with two coins.
Conditioned taste aversion / Seligman's sauce bearnaise phenomenon States that it is easier to pair nausea with taste than with anything else
Preparedness A species' specific predisposition to be controlled a certain way, based on an evolutionary basis.
Observational learning Learning solely by watching a 'model'
Bandora's Bobo doll expirement Preschooler works on drawing, sees adult beat up doll, decides to beat it up as well
Behavior modification Systematic approach to changing behavior through applications of the principles of operant conditioning. First identify a target response like smoking, then identify antecedents like watching TV, and reinforce.
Token economy System of doling out symbolic reinforcers, like points, that are exchanged later for genuine reinforcers like money.
Escape Learning When an organism acquires a response decreasing or ending aversive stimulation, usually maintained by negative reinforcement.
Avoidance learning When an organism acquires a response preventing aversive stimulation,
Created by: uriel_magana
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