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Geo Chap 1 and 2

Geography The Earth's Structure & Plate tectonics

Crust The outermost layer, made of solid rock.
Mantle It consists of several layers of rock. The rock varies from semi-molten at the surface to molten deeper down.
Outer Core Consists mainly of iron. It is so hot it is a constant molten state.
Inner Core Consists of iron and nickel. Even though it is the hottest layer of Earth, the inner core is solid because it is under intense pressure.
Lithosphere The name given to the crust and the upper part of the mantle.
Oceanic - Crust This material is referred to as sima because it is made out of two basic substances, silica and magnesium.
Continental - Crust This material is referred to as sial because it is made out of two basic substances, silica and aluminium.
Continental Shelf The submerged edge of a continent where the sea is relatively shallow compared with the open ocean.
The Asthenosphere The region just below The Lithosphere.
Plates Very large sections into which the outer layers of Earth are broken.
Divergent Plate Boundaries Where plates separate and move apart from one another. Since new rock is formed, these are constructive boundaries.
Convergent Plate Boundaries Where plates collide with one another. Since rock is destroyed, these are destructive boundaries.
Transform Boundaries Where plates grind past one another. Since rock is neither formed nor destroyed, these are passive boundaries.
Subduction The process where the heavier plate slides beneath the lighter plate and downwards into the mantle.
Divergent oceanic Mid-ocean ridge Volcanic islands, eg. Mid-Atlantic Ridge Iceland.
Divergent continental Riff Valley, new seas, eg. Africa Rift Valle, Red Sea.
Convergent oceanic-oceanic Volcanic island arc, eg. Japan.
Convergent oceanic-continental Volcanoes, mountain chain Ocean trenches, eg. Andes, Peru- Chile Trench.
Convergent continental-continental Moutain chain, plateau, eg. Himalayas.
Transform Fault lines and valleys, eg. San Andreas Fault.
Created by: oliviaconnolly