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Exam 3

Chapter 10- emotion

What is emotion? ~Physiological arousal, conscious experience, expressive behaviors
Emotions are Adaptive 1. Facial expressions communicate emotion 2. Emotions strengthen interpersonal relations
Theoretical perspectives: Darwin (1872) ~Emotional expressions are universal and can be seen in all species. ~Repression of outward signs of emotion results in a softening of the experienced emotion
James (James-Lange Theory) ~Emotional brain processes are just sensory brain processes combined 1. Perception -> bodily changes -> emotion ~You feel sad because you are crying
Objections to the James-Lange Theory 1. Different emotions cause similar arousal patterns 2. Those with spinal cord injuries still report experiencing emotions 3. Not necessarily good at interpreting these physiological signals
Cannon (Cannon-Bard Theory) Disputed James’ theory 1. The same physical changes happen in emotional and non-emotional contexts ~You don’t have to cry to be sad. There simply has to be sufficient and appropriate activation of the thalamus in response to the situation.
(cannon)Emotional expression results from sub cortical structures (specifically the thalamus) 1. Thalamic neurons do not require input from cortex 2. Emotion only requires sufficient activation of thalamus.
Cognitive perspectives on emotion Schachter and Singer (1962): cognitive judgments are a critical part of emotional experience, emotion Involves the interpretation of a physiological response and the stimulus/situation
Testing the Schachter-Singer Theory 1. Participants given pill and told that it induces euphoria/anger, control was not told. 2. Then perceived emotion depended on knowledge
Primary and Secondary Emotions 1. Primary (basic): there are six- surprise, fear, disgust, anger, happiness, and sadness 2. Secondary: guilt, shame, pride, jealousy, and envy
Emotional Expression Facial expressions (most salient), vocal tone, gestures, body postures
60% agreement in facial expressions across cultures 1. New Guinea Studies (Ekman et al.) – isolated culture 2. May be innate
h. How is emotion processed in the brain? Frontal lobe and Amygdala
Frontal lobe a. loss in ability to act on emotions in deliberate, planned ways after damage. b. lateralization of emotions: left: positive emotions right: negative emotions
Amygdala a. active in response to fear, anger, disgust. b. damage causes inability to experience emotional significance of stimuli - unable to recognize fear in people’s faces
patient SM - amygdala damage - emotion afraid was rated less intense -did not understand fear
Created by: randikeys