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Nervous System / Vertebral Column

name 3 parts of a neuron cell body, axon, dendrite
gray matter is ________ fibers unmylientaed
white matter is _______ fibers mylientaed
nerve fibers are ________ of nerve fibers conductors
what are the gaps between neurons (neuromuscular junctions ) called? synapse
what do you call a group of mylientaed fibers in the CNS? tracts
what type of neuron transmits impulses away from the CNS? motor (efferent )
what type of neuron transmits impulses toward the CNS? sensory (afferent)
this neuron integrates signals from one or more sensory neuron and relays impulses to motor neurons. name this neuron? interneuron
name the 4 major lobes of the cerebrum ? frontal, occipital , parietal, temporal
frontal lobe specializes in 3 things. what are they? personality, speech, motor movement
occipital lobe specializes in 3 things. what are they? vision, recognition of size, shape and color
parietal lobe specializes in 2 things. what are they? gross sensation (touch), fine sensation (determination of weight , size and shape)
where is the thalamus located? beneath the cortex
where is the relay station for the body sensations; where pain is perceived? thalamus
where does hormone function and behavior come from? hypothalamus
name the 3 parts of the brain stem ? midbrain , pons, medulla oblongata
what does the midbrain do? visual reflexes
what 2 things does the medulla oblongata control? respiration and heart rate
cerebellum is also called the_______ ________ little brain
cerebellum controls 3 things. what are they? muscle coordination, tone and posture
This cord runs from the medulla oblongata to the conus medullaris. name the cord? spinal cord
cauda equina are part of the spinal chord that runs from _____ to ______ and is also called _______ _______ L2 to S5, and horse tail
lateral corticospinal tract is located in the ________ _________. this tract controls _________ spinal chord, motor
the upper motor neuron synapses _________ the ________ horn above , anterior
the lower motor neuron synapse ________ the ________ horn below, anterior
upper and lower motor neuron injuries result in ________, clinical signs different
paralysis = UMN______ and LMN_________ spasticity (UMN), flaccid (LMN)
muscle atrophy= UMN_____ and LMN_______ not significant (UMN), marked (LMN)
fasciculations and fibrillations = UMN_______ and LMN________ not present (UMN) , present (LMN)
reflexes= UMN_______ and LMN________ hyperreflexia (UMN), hyporeflexia (LMN)
Babinski reflex = UMN _______ and LMN_______ present (UMN), not present (LMN)
Clonus= UMN_____ and LMN______ present (UMN), not present (LMN)
the peripheral nervous system consists of 3 parts. what are they? cranial nerves, spinal nerves, plexus formation
the plexus formation consists of 3 parts. what are they? cervical , brachial , lumbosacral
how many cranial nerves are there? 12
cranial nerves can be ______, _________, or _______ sensory, motor or both
On Occasion Our Trusty Truck Acts Funny Very Good Vehicle Any How Olfactory (1), Optic (2), Oculomotor (3), Trochlear (4), Trigeminal (5), Abducens (6), Facial (7), Vestibulocochlear (8), Glossopharyngeal (9), Vargus (10), Accessory (11), Hypoglossal (12)
Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter More Sensory (1), Sensory (2), Motor (3), Motor(4), Both (5), Motor (6) Both (7) Sensory (8) Both (9) , Both (10), Motor (11), Motor (12)
cervical nerves start from ____ to ______ C1 to C8
thoracic nerves start from ______ to ______ T1 to T12
lumbar nerves start from ______ to _______ L1 to L5
the horses tail (cauda equina) is located at what nerve? L1
how many spinal nerves are there? 31
how many cervical nerves are there? 8
how many thoracic nerves are there? 12
how many lumber nerves are there? 5
how many sacral nerves are there? 5
how many coccygeal nerves are there? 1
cervical nerves 1-7 exit _____ the vertebra , above
C8 exists ______ the vertebra. below
spinal nerve exist the intervertebral foramen it divides into a ______ and ______ ramus. ventral and dorsal
an area of skin supplied with the sensory fibers of a spinal nerve is ? dermatones
the anterior rami join together forming a network known as a ________ plexus
C1- C4 serves the ______ plexus. cervical
C3- C5 serves the _______ ________. levator scapulae
phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm at C3- C5
Brachial plexus serves ______ - _______ C5- T1
what are the 5 branches of the cords of the peripheral nerves? axillary, musculoskeletal , radial, median, ulnar
lumbar plexus serves _____ - ______ L1- L4
lumbar plexus innervates the ______ thigh
obturator nerve serves the anterior division of _______ - ________ L2- L4
femoral nerve serves the posterior division of _______- _______ L2- L4
sacral plexus serves ______- ________ L5- S3
sacral plexus innervates the ______ and _______ leg and foot
sciatic nerve serves ______- _______ L4- S3
tibial nerve serves ______ - _______ L4- S2
common peroneal nerve serves ____ -______ L4- S3
muscle fibers are innervates by a ________ motor unit
a organ that receives information from muscles and responsible for reflexes. what organ is this? muscle spindle
muscle spindles sense ______ and _______ of stretch stretch and speed
a organ that receives information from the tendon. what organ is this? Golgi tendon
Golgi tendon senses _______ tention
name 2 congenital defects . hydrocephalus and cerebral palsy
name 5 pathologies of the CNS, congenital defects, spinal cord injuries, disorders of the muscle and neuromuscular junction
name a disorder of the muscle and neuromuscluar junction. muscular dystrophy
name a demyelinating disease. multiple sclerosis
name a pathology disease of the face nerve. Bells palsy
thoracic outlet syndrome is a pathology that effects the ------ and ---------. brachial plexus and subclavian artery
carpal tunnel is a pathology that effects the median nerve
sciatica is lower back pain that runs down one or both legs
foot drop is the dropping of the forefoot due to weakness and pain of the common peroneal nerve
name 2 events that happen during ventilation. inspiration and expiration
what is the normal breathing rate? 12-20
what is Boyles Law ? the relationship between gas pressure and volume
what is the formula for Boyles Law? P= 1/V
how does Boyles Law help ventilation? decrease volume, increase pressure or gas and increase volume , decrease gas pressure inside of container
what is pump handle and bucket handle movements of the rib cage? elevation of the rib cage occurs with inspiration, increase medial -lateral diameter and increase anterior-posterior diameter. depression or rib cage with expiration, decrease medial-lateral diameter and decrease anterior-posterior diameter
quite expiration is passive
forced expiration is muscles pulled down the rib and compress the abdomen which raises the diaphragm; active
quiet inspiration is inspiration while resting or sitting quietly
deep inspiration is more O2 required , breathing is harder
inspiration is an ------ active process
what are the 3 primary muscles of quiet inspiration? diaphragm (75%), extenal intercostals (25%), scalenes
what are the 3 accessory muscles of the deep and forced inspiration? sternocliedomastoid , serratus anterior, pectoralis minor
expiration is a passive process
what are the 2 primary muscles of forced expiration? internal intercostals, abdominal muscles
internal intercostals depress ribs
abdominal muscles compresses the abdomen and forces the diaphragm upward
diaphragmatic breathing is more------ and requires least-------- efficient and energy
gravity pulls diaphragm down in------ and ----- sitting or standing
diaphram has to work harder in supine / prone, but you can raise the head of the bed
chest breathing is ------ efficient and requires----- energy least and more
valsavia maneuver is used by weight lifters
bradycardia reflex occurs with valsalva maneuver
an increase pressure to ear drums and intrathoracic pressure is caused by? valsalva maneuver
how many vertebral segments make up the spine? cervical(7), thoracic (12), lumbar(5), sacral (4), coccygeal (1)
the vertebral column is composed of a natural ------- --------- reciprocal curves
lordosis is located where on the vertebral column? cervical and lumbar
kyphosis is located where on the vertebral column? thoracic and sacro-coccygeal
nucleus pulposus lose------ in discs. water
connects intervertebral disc to vertebra above and below and also provides nutrition. vertebral end plate
what are the most mobile and smallest vertebrae? cervical (C1-C7)
what are the typical cervical vertebrae? C3-C7
most are bifid and transverse formina, name the vertebrae. typical cervical vertebra
-------- wear and tear between cervical vertebrae. osteophites
two large concave facets, sit on top of lateral masses to accept occipital condyles, forming atlanto-occipital joint, whic cervical vertebrae is it? atlas (C1)
the largest transverse processes in he cervical region is the atlas (C1)
the den is only on axis (C2)
name the spinous process of C2 that is very broad and palpable. Bifid
this vertebrae functions on a vertical axis between and cervical region? what vertebrae is ti? axis(C20
these joints are aligned in the frontal plane. what are they? apophyseal joints
what bone transmits the weight of the vertebral column to pelvis? triangular bone
this canal houses and protects the cauda equina? sacral canal
dorsal sacral formina transmit ----- rami of sacral nerves and ventral sacral formina transmit ------- rami of spinal nerves. dorsal and ventral
this ligament attaches the anterior surface of a adjacent lamina. name the ligament? ligamentum flavum
these 2 ligament attach between spinous processes from C7 to sacrum. name thee ligaments. superspinous and interspinous ligaments
ligamentum flavum limits? flexion
superspinous and interspinous limits? flexion
cervical and cranial extension -------- nuchae ligamentum nuchae
this ligament is located between the transverse processes. name the ligament. intertransverse ligaments
superspinous and interspinous ligaments limit? flexion
intertransverse limits? lateral flexion
this ligament is located between basilar part of occipital bone and entire length vertebral bodys anterior surface. name the ligament? anterior longitudinal ligament
anterior longitudinal ligament limits? extention
posterior longitudinal ligament limits? flexion
this ligament runs along the posterior aspect of the vertebral bodies from C2 to sacrum. name this ligament? posterior longitudinal ligament
the vertebral column is divided up into 2 motions. what are they? craniocervical and thoracolumbar motion
name the region composed of antlanto-occipital joint, antlanto-axial joint, and intracervical region. what region is this? craniocervical region
occipital cndyles roll ------ in extension and --------- during flexion. backward and forward
an arc of motion determined by the cervical facet joints oblique plane is? flexion and extension
axial flexion and extension = cervical protraction/ retraction
inferior facets of the superior vertebrae slide posteriorly and inferiorly relative to vertebrae below. what is this motion? extention
the facet surfaces of C1- C2 are the closet to ? horizontal
what is the most common motion for facet surfaces of C1- C2 ? rotation
the facet surface of C2-C7 are at a ---- angle? 45 angle
what is the most common motion for facet surfaces of C2- C7 to? rotation and lateral flexion
the L curve mostly is from? thoracic
the thoracic facet surfaces are closest to the ? frontal plane
the lumbar facet surfaces are closest to the sagittal plane
what motion is most common for lumbar facets surfaces? flexion and extension
weight of the entire trunk and upper body is transferred to the pelvis at this area. name this area. lumbosacral junction
the articulation between L5 and S1 is lumbosacral junction
facet joints of L5-S1 are oriented close to the frontal plane preventing the lower spine fom downhill
excessive anterior translation of the lumbar spine relative to sacrum is called anterior spondylolisthesis
anterior spondylolisthesis can happen at -------- any level
formed by articulations of sacrum and innomiate bone? sacroiliac joints
how many SIJ does a person have? 2
what type of joint is the SIJ? plane
what is the primary function of the SIJ? allows the sacrum to transfer forces of body weight to the pelvis and LE
nutation is like flexion
counternutation is like extenstion
anterior rotation of the sacrum relative to each ilium is nutation
posterior rotation of the sacrum relative to each ilium is counternutation
vertebral joints open packed position is half way between flexion and extension
vertebral joints closed packed position is maximal extension (head back)
short-arc anterior rotation of the pelvis is anterior pelvic tilt
name a tilt that extends the lumbar spine and increases lumbar lordosis. anterior pelvic tilt
what muscles are shorten and lengthened in an anterior pelvic tilt? hamstrings
what muscles are shorten and lengthened in an posterior pelvic tilt? hip flexors
short-arc posterior rotation of the pelvis is posterior pelvic tilt
what flexes the lumbar spine and decreases lumbar lordosis? posterior pelvic tilt
during a sit-up what muscle group shares the responsibility of the motion with the abdominal muscles? hip flexors
what type of isometric abdominal strengthening exercise can be performed that requires much less activation of the muscle group? planks
what causes forward head posture? sitting
cervical extensors become overstretched, suboccipital muscles become shortened which produces forward head posture
uncontrolled acceleration at the head/ neck is whiplash
degenerative disc disease = dehydration of discs
abnormal frontal plane curvature is scoliosis
potential migration of the intervertebral disc; aka bulging or slipped disc is called herniated nucleus pulposus
narrowing of the intervertebral foramen is stenosis
if your scalenes and/ or pectoralis minor muscles are tight, it may create pressure onto ---------- -----------, causing pain that leds down to the arm or hand, neurovascular bundle
annulus fibrosus has ------ rings of fibrocartilage around the the nucleus pulposus, 10-20
Created by: Shannon10
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