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PT Care Unit 4 Defs

SJC Hoang PT Care S1U4 Definitions from ch 20-23

Seriously?Unfortunately, yes.
Aura Subjective sensation or motor phenomenon that precedes and marks the onset of a paroxysmal attack, such as an epileptic attack
Automatic External Defibrillators (AEDs) Devices used for application of external electrical shock to restore normal cardiac rhythm and rate
Cardiac arrest Sudden stoppage of cardiac output and effective circulation
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Artificial substitution of
heart and lung action as indicated for cardiac arrest or apparent sudden death resulting from electric shock, drowning, respiratory arrest, and other causes
Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke or Brain Attack) Condition with sudden onset caused by acute vascular lesions of the brain; often followed by permanent neurologic damage
Emergency Unexpected or sudden occasion; an urgent or pressing need
Epistaxis Nosebleed; hemorrhage from the nose
Hemorrhage Escape of blood from the vessels; bleeding
Hyperglycemia Abnormally increased concentration of glucose in the blood
Hypoglycemia Abnormally diminished concentration of glucose in the blood
Lethargy Abnormal drowsiness or stupor; a condition of indifference
Nausea Unpleasant sensation, vaguely referred to the epigastrium and abdomen and often culminating in vomiting
Pallor Paleness; absence of skin coloration
Shock Condition of profound hemodynamic and metabolic disturbance characterized by failure of the circulatory system to maintain adequate perfusion of vital organs
Syncope Temporary suspension of consciousness as a result of generalized cerebral ischemia; faint or swoon
Urticaria Vascular reaction, usually transient, involving the upper dermis, representing localized edema caused by dilatation and increased permeability of the capillaries and marked by the development of wheals; also called hives
Ventricular Fibrillation Disorganized cardiac rhythm
Vertigo Illusion of movement; sensation as if the external world were revolving around the patient or as if the patient were revolving in space
Vomiting Forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth
Wounds Bodily injuries caused by physical means with disruption of the normal continuity of structures
Wound Dehiscence Separation of the layers of a surgical wound; may be partial, or superficial only, or complete, with disruption of all layers
Analgesics Drugs that relieve pain without causing a loss of consciousness
Anaphylaxis Condition of shock caused by hypersensitivity to a drug or other substance that results in life-threatening respiratory distress and vascular collapse
Anemia Subnormal concentration of erythrocytes or hemoglobin in the blood
Anesthetics Agents that reversibly depress neuronal function, producing loss of ability to perceive pain and/or other sensations
Angina Pectoris Severe constricting pain in the chest, often radiating to the shoulder and down the arm, caused by ischemia (obstruction of blood supply) of the heart muscle, usually a result of coronary disease
Antagonist Substance that tends to nullify the action of another drug
Anticholinergics Drugs that block the passage of impulses through the parasympathetic nerves
Arrhythmias Variations from the normal rhythm of the heartbeat
Atherosclerosis Condition in which thickening of the wall of a blood vessel occurs because of the deposition of plaque (atheroma)
Bronchodilators Drugs that cause expansion of the lumina of the air passages of the lungs
Coagulation Process of clot formation
Contraindications Conditions that render the administration of some drug or some particular line of treatment improper or undesirable
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Primarily a disorder of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism secondary to insufficient secretion of insulin or insulin resistance
Diabetic Gastroparesis Form of nerve damage that affects the stomach; food does not move through the stomach in a normal way, resulting in vomiting, nausea, or bloating
Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Disorder of the peripheral nervous system, a complication of diabetes
Diuretics Drugs that promote the excretion of urine
Drug Any substance that, when taken into a living organism, may modify one or more of its functions
Edema Presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the tissues of the body
Extravasation Discharge or escape of fluid from a vessel into the surrounding tissue that can cause localized vasoconstriction, resulting in sloughing of tissue and tissue necrosis if not reversed with an antidote
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Inflammation of the lower esophagus from regurgitation of acid gastric contents; symptoms include heartburn
Generic Name Drug name that is usually descriptive of its chemical structure but is not protected as is a trademark
Hematoma Localized collection of blood in the tissue resulting from a break in the wall of the blood vessel
Hyperlipidemia Elevations of plasma lipid concentration
Hypertension Persistently high arterial blood pressure, usually exceeding 140 mm Hg systolic and 90 mm Hg diastolic
Idiosyncratic Reaction Unusual response to a drug that is peculiar to the individual
Infiltration Diffusion of fluid into a tissue; often used interchangeably with extravasation
Laxatives Agents that promote evacuation of the bowel
Metabolic Acidosis Condition resulting from accumulation of acid or depletion of alkaline reserves (bicarbonate in the blood and body tissues)
Microorganisms Microscopic organisms such as bacteria or viruses that are too small to be seen without a microscope
Opioids Drugs, natural or synthetic, that have activity similar to that of morphine
Osteoporosis Disease of bone that leads to an increased risk for fracture; bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, and bone microarchitecture is disrupted
Parenteral Not through the gastrointestinal tract but by injection through some other route
Parkinson's Disease (PD) Degenerative neurologic disease of the brain that often impairs motor skills, speech, and other functions
Peristalsis Waves of contraction that propel contents through the gastrointestinal tract
Pharmacist Person who is licensed to prepare and dispense drugs
Pharmacokinetics Study of the metabolism and action of drugs with particular emphasis on the time required for absorption, duration of action, distribution in the body, and method of excretion
Pharmacology Study of drugs and their origin, nature, properties, and effects on living organisms
Physical Dependence State of adaptation exhibited by a withdrawal syndrome specific to a class of drugs and that may be produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, or administration of an antagonist
Schizophrenia Chronic mental disorder characterized by periods of withdrawn or bizarre behavior
Shock Condition characterized by profound hypotension and reduced tissue perfusion
Side Effect Consequence other than the one for which a drug is used
Therapeutic Pertaining to the art of healing
Thromboembolic Disorders Conditions involving the partial or complete obstruction of a blood vessel
Tolerance State of adaptation in response to drug exposure that results in a decrease of one or more of the drug's effects over time
Vasoconstrictors Drugs that cause constriction of the blood vessels
Vasodilators Drugs that cause dilatation of the blood vessels
Ampule Small sealed glass container that holds a single dose of parenteral solution in a sterile condition
Angiocath Catheter inserted directly into the vein for drug administration
Bolus Concentrated mass of pharmaceutical preparation
Buccal Pertaining to the inside of the mouth
Drip Infusion Infusion of liquid directly into the vein
Enteral Within the gastrointestinal tract
Extravasation Discharge or escape of fluid from a vessel into the surrounding tissue that can cause localized vasoconstriction, resulting in sloughing of tissue and tissue necrosis if not reversed with an antidote
Intradermal Within or between the layers of skin
Intramuscular Within the muscle tissue
Intravenous Within a vein
Intravenous Injection Medication that is delivered by intravenous push (rapid delivery) or intravenous infusion (slow drip of medication over a period of time) directly into the vein
Parenteral or Parenterally Drug administration by a route other than the GI tract, typically by injection through the skin
Rectal Inserted into the rectum
Subcutaneous Beneath the skin
Sublingual Beneath the tongue
Topical Applied to a certain area of the skin and affecting only the area to which it is applied
Transdermal Entering through the skin
Venipuncture Puncture of a vein
Vial Small glass bottle containing multiple doses of a drug
Acid Group Contains carbon double bonded to an oxygen, single bonded to another oxygen, and a negative charge at the pH of the body
Amine Group Contains nitrogen bonded to two hydrogen atoms
Anaphylactoid Resembling an immune system response to foreign material (antigen)
Atomic Numbers Numbers of protons in the nuclei of the different elements
Blood, Urea, Nitrogen (BUN) BUN test can reveal whether the urea nitrogen levels are higher than normal, suggesting that the kidneys or liver may not be working properly
Bond Interactions between electrons of atoms that hold the atoms together in a stable group; line drawn between atoms indicates a bond: H-O-H
Bronchospasm Involuntary constriction of the bronchial tubes usually resulting from an immune system reaction to a foreign particle or molecule
Compound Substance composed of two or more elements combined in definite ratios that give the substance specific properties
Contraindications Factors of a patient's history or present status that indicate that a medical procedure should not be performed or that a medication should not be given
Creatinine Nitrogen-containing waste products of metabolism excreted by the kidney's filtration system; high blood plasma levels indicate poor filtration by the kidney
Dimer Compound formed by bonding of two identical simpler molecules
Extravasation Leakage from a vessel into the tissue
Flocculation Formation of flaky masses resulting from precipitation or coming out of a suspension or solution
Histamine Molecular substance containing an amine group; causes bronchial constriction and a decrease in blood pressure
Hydroxyl Common chemical group, part of the water molecule, containing one atom of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen; carries a negative charge (anion) when not a part of a molecule
IonicAtom or molecule having a negative charge (anion) or positive charge (cation)
Methyl Groups Common biochemical groups containing one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms
Molecules Stable groups of bonded atoms having specific chemical properties
Monomers Simple molecules of a compound of relatively low molecular weight
Osmolality Measurement of the number of particles (molecules or ions or cations) that can crowd out water molecules in a measured mass (kilogram) of water
Osmosis Movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a semipermeable membrane such as blood vessel walls and cell membranes
pH Relative acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of a solution; pH below 7.0 is acidic and has more hydrogen cations than hydroxyl anions, whereas pH above 7.0 is alkaline and has more hydroxyl anions than hydrogen cations
Radiopharmaceutical Pharmaceutical compound that is attached to a radioisotope
Shock Inadequate blood flow within the body with resulting loss of oxygen and therefore energy
Solution Uniform mixture of two or more substances composed of molecule-sized particles that do not react together chemically
Suspension Nonuniform mixture of two or more substances, one of which is composed of larger-than-molecule-size particles that have a tendency to cluster together
Created by: paigeduh