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Ch 6 Lower Limb

Bontrager Ch 6 Self Test Questions

QuestionAnswer
What is the name of the tarsal bone found on the medial side of the foot between the talus and three cuneiforms? Navicular (Scaphoid)
Where are the sesamoid bones of the foot commonly located? Plantar surface near the head of first metatarsal
Which tarsal bone is considered to be the smallest? Intermediate Cuneiform
What is another term for the talocalcaneal joint? Subtalarjoint
The distal tibial joint surface is called...? Tibial plafond
True or False? The mortise of the ankle should be totally open and visible on a correctly positioned AP projection of the ankle FALSE
What is the correct central ray (CR) centering placement for an AP projection of the toes? Affected MTP joint
Which type of CR angle is required for an AP projection of the toes? 10 to 15 degrees posterior
What projection is used for the sesamoid bones of the foot? Tangential
How much foot rotation is required for the AP oblique, medial rotation projection of the foot? 30 to 40 degrees
What is another term for the AP projection of the foot? Dorsoplantar projection
What CR angle is generally required for the AP projection of the foot? 10 degrees posterior
Which projection of the foot best demonstrates the cuboid? AP oblique- medial rotation
What is the name of the deep depression found on the posterior side of the distal femur? Intercondylar fossa
A line drawn across the most distal aspect of the medial & lateral femoral condyles would be ____ from being at a right angle to the long axis of the femur 5 to 7 degrees
The upper, or superior, portion of the patella is called the ____ base
Which structures serve as shock absorbers within the knee joint? Menisci
Where is the central ray placed for a plantodorsal axial projection of the calcaneus? Base of the third metatarsal
Which ankle projection is best for demonstrating the mortise of the ankle? AP Oblique (15 to 20 degree medial rotation)
Which imaginary plane should be placed parallel to the IR for an AP projection of the knee? Interepicondylar
Which joint space should be open or almost open for a well-positioned AP oblique knee projection with medial rotation? Proximal tibiofibular
Why is a PA projection of the patella preferred to an AP projection? Less OID, less distortion of the patella, less magnification of the patella
A projection is performed for the patellofemoral joint with the patient supine and the knee flexed 40 degrees. The CR is angled 30 degrees caudad from horizontal. The casette is resting on the lower legs supported by a special cassette-holding device. Bilateral Merchant
What is the major DISADVANTAGE of the Settegast method? Requires overflexion of the knee
A film of an AP knee shows that the joint spaces are not equally open and the proximal fibula is superimposed over the tibia. What error occurred? Lateral rotation of the lower limb
A patient is referred to radiology for a possible Lisfranc injury. Which of the following positioning routines best demonstrates the condition? Weight-bearing foot study
An x-ray if an AP mortise projection of the ankle shows that the lateral joint space is not open with the lateral malleolus superimposed over the talus. The talus is distorted. What is the error? Excessive medial rotation
What is the largest and strongest tarsal bone? Calcaneus
What is the name of the joint found between the talus and the calcaneus? Subtalar or talocalcaneal
What is the small opening, or space, found in the middle of the subtalar joint? Sinus tarsi or tarsal sinus
List the three specific articular facets found in the subtalar joint Posterior, Anterior, and Middle facet
Which tuberosity of the foot is palpable and a common site of foot trauma? Tuberosity of base of 5th metatarsal
What are the two arches of the foot? Longitudinal and Trasverse
Which three bones make up the ankle joint? Talus, Tibia, and Fibula
The three bones of the ankle form a deep socket into which the talus fits. What is that socket called? Ankle Mortise
The distal tibial joint surface forming the roof of the distal ankle joint is called: Tibial Plafond
The ankle joint is classified as a synovial joint with ____ type movement Sellar
The calcaneus articulates with the talus and the: Cuboid
What is the weight-bearing bone of the lower leg? Tibia
What is the name of the large prominence located on the midanterior surface of the proximal tibia that serves as a distal attachment for the patellar tendon? Tibial Tuberosity
What is the name of the small prominence located on the posterolateral aspect of the medial condyle of the femur that is an identifying landmark to determine possible rotation of a lateral knee? Adductor tubercle
A small, triangular depression located on the tibia that helps form the distal tibiofibular joint is the called the: Fibular notch
The articular facets of the proximal tibia are also referred to as the: Tibial Plateau
What degree do the articular facets slope posteriorly? 10 to 15 degrees
What is the most proximal aspect of the fibula? Apex
The extreme distal end of the fibula forms: Lateral Malleolus
What is the name of the largest sesamoid bone in the body? Patella
What are two other names for the patellar surface of the femur? Intercondylar sulcus and Trochlear groove
What is the name of the depression located on the posterior aspect of the distal femur? Intercondyler FOSSA
Why does the CR need to be angled 5 to 7 degrees cephalad for the lateral knee projection? The medial condyle extends lower than the lateral condyle of the femur
What is the name of the slightly raised area located on the posterolateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle? Adductor Tubercle
What is the general region of the posterior knee called? Popliteal region
What are the two palpable bony landmarks found on the distal femur? Medial & Lateral Epicondyle
True or False: The patella acts like a pivot to increase the leverage of a large muscle found in the anterior thigh TRUE!
For which large muscle does the patella serve as a pivot to increase the leverage? Quadriceps Femoris
What is the inward turning or bending of the ankle? Inversion
Decreasing the angle between the dorsum pedis and anterior lower leg is what foot/ankle movement? Dorsiflexion
What is the outward turning or bending of the ankle? Eversion
What is it called when extending the ankle or pointing the foot and toe downward? Plantar Flexion
What KV range should be used for lower limb radiography? 50 to 70 kv
What is the recommended SID distance for lower limb? 40 inches
Why is the central ray angled 10 to 15 degrees toward the calcaneus for an AP projection of the toes? Opens up the IP and MTP joints
Where is the CR centered for the AP oblique projection of the foot? Base of the 3rd MT
The foot should be dorsiflexed so that the plantar surface of the foot is ______ from the vertical for the sesamoid projection 15 to 20 degrees
Why should the CR be perpendicular to the metatarsals for an AP projection of the foot? Opens up the MTP joints and certain intertarsal joints
Rotation can be determined on an x-ray image of an AP foot projection by the near-equal distance between the ____ metatarsals 2nd to 5th
Which oblique projection of the foot best demonstrates the majority of the tarsal bones? AP oblique with medial rotation
Which oblique projection best demonstrates the navicular and the first and second cuneiforms with minimal superimposition? AP oblique with lateral rotation
Which projection will place the foot into a true lateral position? Mediolateral or Lateromedial? Lateromedial
Which type of study should be performed to best evaluate the status of the longitudinal arches of the foot? AP & Lateral weight-bearing projections
How should the CR be angled from the long axis of the foot for the plantodorsal axial projection of the calcaneus? 40 degrees cephalad
What calcaneal structure should appear medially on a well-positioned plantodorsal axial projection? Sustentaculum tali
Where is the CR placed for a mediolateral projection of the calcaneus? 1 inch inferior to medial malleolus
Why should AP, 45 degree oblique, and lateral ankle radiographs include the proximal metatarsals? Demonstrate a possible fracture of the 5th metatarsal tuberosity
How much (if any) should the foot be rotated for an AP mortise projection of the ankle? 15 to 20 degree (medially)
Which projection of the ankle best demonstrates a possible fracture of the lateral malleolus? 45 degree AP oblique with medial rotation
With a true lateral projection of the ankle, the lateral malleolus is: Projected over the posterior aspect of the distal tibia
To include both joints for a lateral projection of the tibia and fibula for an adult, how should the technologist place the cassette in relation to the part? Diagonally
Where is the CR centered for an AP projection of the knee? 1/2 inch distal to the apex of the patella
Which basic projection of a knee demonstrates the proximal fibula free of superimposition? AP oblique, 45 degree medial rotation
How much flexion is recommended for a lateral projection of the knee? 20 to 30 degrees
Which one of the following special projections of the knee best demonstrates the intercondylar fossa? Holmblad
How much flexion of the lower leg is required for the PA axial projection (Also known as Camp-Coventry method) when the CR is angled 40 degree caudad? 40 degree flexion
What type of CR angulation is required for the PA axial weight-bearing projection (Rosenberg method)? 10 degrees caudad
How much knee flexion is required for the PA axial projection (Holmblad method)? 60 to 70 degrees
What type of CR angle is required for the PA axial (Holmblad method)? None- Perpendicular to the IR
How much part flexion is recommended for a lateral projection of the patella? 5 to 10 degrees
How much CR angle from the long axis of the femora is required for the tangential (Merchant) bilateral projection? 30 degrees from horizontal
How much part flexion is required for the Hughston method? 55 degrees
How much part flexion is required for the Settegast method? 90 degrees
What type of CR angle is required for the superoinferior sitting tangential method for the patella? None-CR is perpendicular to the IR
How much knee flexion is required for the horizontal beam lateral patella projection? None
What method can be performed using a wheelchair or lowered radiographic table? Holmblad Method (Variation)
What method requires the patient prone; 90 degree knee flexion Settegast Method
What method requires the patient prone with 40 to 50 degree knee flexion and with equal 40 to 50 degree caudad CR angle? Camp-Coventry Method
Which method has the IR placed on a foot stool to minimize OID? Hobbs Modification
What method requires the patient to be supine with the cassette resting at midthighs? Inferosuperior for patellofemoral joint
What method requires the patient to be supine with 40 degree knee flexion and with 30 degree caudad CR angle from horizontal? Merchant Method
Which special projection of the knee should be performed erect? Rosenberg method
Created by: lorperkins