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Psychology Exam 3

Psychology 101: Development:Emotions:Sexuality and Gender:Personality:

Stages or Continutity abrupt changes development and brain process are often related to enviormental circumstances A long standing debate leading into the discovery of the critical period
Hereditary and Environmental Factors A debate because of the balance of nature and future to the brain A debate in psychology on the balance between nature and nurture
Stability and Change Some report personality traits can be identified early in life other report that personality changes as a result to relationships A long standing debate in psychology on personalilty
Sensorimotor Child uses sensory capabilities and motor activities to learn about the world; develops object permanence. Piaget's first stage of cognitive development from birth to 2 years of age
Preoperational Child uses symbolic thinking to explore and understand the world; display magical thinking and egocentrism. Piaget's second stage of cognitive development between the ages of 2 through 7
Concrete operational Child understand operations and thinks more logically in reference to concrete objects and circumstances. Piaget's third stage of development between 7 to 11 years old
Formal operational Child is now able to think logically and systematically and is capable of hypothetical thinking. Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development between the ages of 7-11
Trust vs Mistrust birth-1 year Trusts others, has faith in others Mistrusts others, expects the worst of people
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt 1-3 yrs old learn to be autonomous and independent learns to feel shame and doubt when freedom to explore is restricted
Initiative vs guilt 3-6 yrs old becomes more responsible, shows the ability to follow through develops guilt and anxiety when unable to handle resonsibllities
ego identity vs role confusion puberty to twenties tries out roles and emerges with a strong sense of values, beliefs, and goals lacks a solid identity, experiences withdrawal, isolation, or continued role confusion
intimacy vs isolation twenties to forties creates meaningful, deep relationships lives in isolation
Generality vs stagnation forties to mid sixties makes a positive impact on the next generation through parenting, community involvement, or work that is valuable and significant. feels regret and dissatisfaction
Preconventional Reasoning Focuses on the consequences of behaviors, good or bad, and is concerned with avoiding punishment. Stage 1: Punishment and obedience orientation: Moral behavior is determined by what is punished Stage 2: Instrumental-relativist orientation Moral behavior is determined by what is received in exchange
Conventional Reasoning Right and wrong is determined from the expectations of society and important others. Stage 3: Interpersonal concordance orientation; Moral behavior is determined by approval of others Stage 4: Law and order orientation; Moral behavior is determined by strict adherence to societal laws
Postconventional Reasoning Right and wrong are determined by the individual’s beliefs about morality, which sometimes do not coincide wit Stage 5: Social contact, legalistic orientation; Moral behavior is determined by societal laws, which adapt to meet the needs of society Stage 6: Universal ethical principle; Moral behavior is guided by universal principles of justice and equality
Authoritarian Parenting Parents who insist in rigid boundaries, show little warmth, and expect high control
Authoritative Parenting Parents set high expectations, demonstrate a warm attitude, and are responsive to their children's needs
Permissive Parenting Parents demands little of the child and imposes few limitations
Uninvolved Parenting Parents who seem indifferent to their children.
Denial In the denial stage a person may react to the news with shock and disbelief, perhaps even suggesting that the doctors are wrong. Unable to accept the diagnosis he may seek other medical advice
Anger A dying person may feel anger toward others who are healthy, or toward the doctor who does not have the cure.
Bargaining This stage may involve negotiating with God, doctors, or other powerful figures for the way out
Depression There comes a point when a dying person can no longer ignore the inevitable may be due to symptoms of patients actual illness but it can also result from the overwhelming sense of loss
Acceptance Eventually a person finally accepts the inevitable this stage can deeply impact family and close friends who may need more support then the person that is dying
Extrinsic motivation motivated by the incentive of external reinforces in the enviorment motivating you to continue that behavior
Intrinstic Motivation the drive or urge to continue comes from within you are motivated because it feels good and bring you satisfaction
Anorexia Nervosa self imposed restrictions on calories needed to maintain a healthy weight
Bulimia Nervosa recurrent episodes of binge eating ten purging behaviors to prevent weight gain
Binge-Eating Disorder episodes of excessive food consumption feelings of inability to control her eating that time and experiences psychological effects.
Set Realistic Goals Set goals and expectations that are specific, realistic, and flexible
Get regular exercise Exercising just 30 mins a day 5 times a week can help with weight loss
Eat Regularly and track intake Eat on a set schedule to minimize mindless eating. Eat only when hungry, and write down what aand how much you eat
Control Portions Watch your portions this is the amount you decide to eat
Drink Water eliminate sweetened beverages
Join a weight loss support group social support helps promote healthier coping strategies and accountabillity
Physiological to have balance of bodily systems the bottom or base level if Mas low's Hierarchy of of Needs
safey to feel safe and secure the second to last in the hierarchy of needs
love and belongingness to feel part of the group to have relationships the third from the bottom
esteem to acheive to have self respect and feelings of interdependence third from the top right above love and belongingness
self actualization to strive for one's fullest potential the sencond from the top
self transendance to extend beyond self the very top peice of the hiararchy of needs
emotions an intensely personal experience;
mood longer term emotinal states that are less intense then emotions
How are emotions diffrent from moods? emotions are ususaly quite strong but they dont last as long as mood and they are more likely to hve an indefinate cause an emotion is initiated by a stimulus and is more likely to motivate someone to action
Why are polygraphs considered controversal they can have error rates anywhere between 25-75%
How does self determination theory relate to motivation? humans are born with 3 fundamentl needs that are always driving us in the direction of optimal functoning
sex refers to someone biological status
gender for cultural roles and expectations
Industry vs inferiority 6 to puberty feels sense of accomplishment and increased self esteem feels inferiority or incompetence, which can later lead to unstable work habits
Created by: Vina
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