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developmental psych3

developmental psych test 3

QuestionAnswer
bonding the strong affectionate ties that parents may feel toward their infant; some theorists believe that the strongest bonding occurs shortly after birth, during a sensitive period
basic emotions the set of emotions present at birth or emerging early in teh first year that some theorists believe to be biologically programmed
complex emotions self-conscious or self evaluative emotions that emerge in the second year and depend, in part, on cognitive development
emotional display rules culturally defined rules specifying which emotions should or should not be expressed under which circumstances
emotional self-regulation strategies for managing emotions or adjusting emotional arousal to an appropriate level of intensity
social referencing the use of others' emotional expressions to infer the meaning of otherwise ambiguous situations
empathy the ability to experience the same emotions that someone else is experiencing
competent emotional expressivity frequent expression of more positive emotions and relatively infrequent displays of negative ones
competent emotional knowledge the abilities to correctly identify other people's feelings and the factors responsible for those emotions
competent emotional regulation the ability to adjust one's experience and expression of emotional arousal to an appropriate level of intensity to successfully achieve one's goals
temperament a person's characteristic modes of responding emotionally and behaviorally to environmental events, including such attributes as activity level, irritability, fearfulness, and sociability
behavioral inhibition a temperamental attribute reflecting one's tendency to withdraw from unfamiliar people or situations
easy temperament temperamental profile in which the child quickly establishes regular routines, is generally good natured, and adapts easily to novelty
difficult temperament temperamental profile in which the child is irregular in daily routines and adapts slowly to new experiences, often responding negatively and intensely
slow-to-warm-up temperament temperamental profile in which the child is inactive and moody and displays mild passive resistance to new routines and experiences
"goodness-of-fit" model Thomas and Chess's notion that development is likely to be optimized when parents' child-rearing practices are sensitively adapted to the child's temperamental characteristics
attachment a close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity
synchronized routines generally harmonious interactions between two persons in which participants adjust their behavior in response to the partner's feelings and behaviors
asocial phase (of attachment) approximately the first 6 weeks of life, in which infants response in an equally favorable way to interesting social and nonsocial stimuli
phase of indiscriminate attachments period between 6 weeks and 6 to 7 months of age in which infants prefer social to nonsocial stimulation and are likely to protests whenever any adults puts them down or leaves them alone
phase of specific attachment period between 7 and 9 months of age when infants are attached to one close companion (usually the mother)
secure base use of a caregiver as a base from which to explore the environment and to which to return for emotional support
phase of multiple attachments period when infants are forming attachments to companions other than their primary attachment object
secondary reinforcer an initially neutral stimulus that acquires reinforcement value by virtue of its repeated association with other reinforcing stimuli
imprinting an innate or instinctual form of learning in which the young of certain species will follow and become attached to moving objects (usually the mothers)
preadapted characteristic an attribute that is a product of evolution and serves some function that increases the changes of survival for the individual and the species
kewpie doll effect the notion that infantlike facial features are perceived as cute and lovable and elicit favorable responses from others
stranger anxiety a wary of fretful reaction that infants and toddlers often display when approached by an unfamiliar person
separation anxiety a wary or fretful reaction that infants and toddlers often display when separated from the person(s) to whom they are attached
Strange Situation a series of eight separation and reunion episodes to which infants are exposed in order to determine the quality of their attachments
secure attachment an infant-caregiver bond in which the child welcomes contact with a close companion and uses this person as a secure base from which to explore the environment
resistant attachment an insecure infant-caregiver bond, characterized by strong separation protest and a tendency of the child to remain near but resist contact initiated by the caregiver, particularly after a separation
avoidant attachment an insecure infant-caregiver bond, characterized by little separation protest and a tendency of the child to avoid or ignore the caregiver
disorganized/disoriented attachment an insecure infant-caregiver bond, characterized by the infant's dazed appearance on reunion or a tendency to first seek and then abruptly avoid the caregiver
Attachment Q-set (AQS) alternative method of assessing attachment security that is based on observations of the child's attachment-related behaviors at home; can be used with infants, toddlers, and preschool children
amae Japanese concept; refers to an infant's feeling of total dependence on his or her mother and the presumption of mother's love and indulgence
caregiving hypothesis Ainworth's notion that the type of attachment that an infant develops with a particular caregiver depends primarily on the kind of caregiving he has received from that person
temperament hypothesis Kagan's view that the Strange Situation measures individual differences in infants' temperaments rather than the quality of their attachments
internal working models cognitive representations of self, others, and relationships that infants construct from their interactions with caregivers
Created by: haleymot