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Phys Sci Ch. 6 Test

SFHS- Richerson's class

QuestionAnswer
What are stable electron configurations? it has a full outer shell of valence electrons
How many valence electrons does a molecule need to be considered stable? 8
List 3 elements with stable electron configurations? Ne, Ar, Kr (all noble gases)
Why do atoms gain or lose electrons? They want to become stable with 8 electrons in outermost shell
In an electron dot diagram, what is the symbol used to represent? Each dot represents a valence electron. Symbol in the center represents nucleus and all electrons in the atom.
Explain ionization energies when looking at the periodic table. Ionization energies tend to INCREASE from left to right across PERIODS. Ionization energies tend to DECREASE from top to bottom of GROUPS
What is a force of attraction between opposite charges of ions in an ionic compound? (bond between a metal and nonmetal) Ionic Bond
What is an attraction formed between atoms when they share an electron? (Bond between a nonmetal and nonmetal) Covalent Bond
What occurs because some electrons move freely among a metal's positively charged ions? Metallic Bond
If a compound of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) has a 1:1 ratio, how would you write it? NaCl
What do the subscripts mean in a formula? the number of atoms of a molecule
List 4 properties of Ionic Compounds? 1- crystalline structure 2- hard and brittle 3- high melting points and boiling points 4- conduct electricity when dissolved in water
How can on determine if a compound contains molecules? If it is covalently bonded (non-mental and metal)
What is a diatomic molecule? (THINK of what number di- stands for!) 2 atoms of same element in a covalent bond
What is a polyatomic molecule? positively or negatively charged, covalently bonded group of many atoms
What is a monoatomic ion? contains 1 atom
How does one distinguish a single bond from a double and triple bond? single bond- shares 2 valence electrons double bond- shares 4 electrons triple bond- shares 6 electrons
What determines polar and non-polar bonds? the type of atoms in a molecule and its shape
Why does water have a high boiling point? because water molecules are polar
List characteristics of transition metals they are shiny and good conductors of heat and electricity. They have higher densities and melting points than groups 1 & 2
List characteristics of halogens All NON-METALS, VERY reactive. Poor conductors of heat and electricty. Tend to form salts with metals.
List characteristics of noble gases Unreactive metals. All are colorless, odorless gases at room temperature. 8 outer level electrons.
List characteristics of alkali metals These metals are extremely reactive and are never found in nature in their pure form. They are silver colored and shiny. Low densities so they are soft metals
List characteristics of alkaline-earth metals slightly less reactive than alkali metals. Silver colored and more dense than alkali metals (2 outer most level electrons)
What is an ionic bond only containing 2 elements? Example: NaCl binary ionic compound
List and name the prefixes for 1-10 1- mono 2- di 3-tri 4-tetra 5- penta 6- hexa 7- hepta 8- octa 9- nona 10- deca
What type of reaction has a substance that reacts with oxygen to produce energy in the form of light and heat? combustion
What type of reaction has 2 or more substances that combine to form another substance? Na + Cl --> NaCl Synthesis
What type of reaction has a substance that breaks down into 2 or more substances? NaCl --> Na + Cl Decomposition
Why can metals be made into thin wires? metal is flexible and doesn't shatter because if it's struck, ions move to a new position but ions are still surrounded by electrons
What is stainless steel made of? chromium (almost no carbon)
What happens if the amount of carbon in steel is increased? increases hardness and strength
Created by: dcrovato