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Cardio unit 5-6-7


What are RBC norms? 5-6 mill males, 4-5 mill females
What are HB norms? 14-17 males, 12-15 females
What are hematocrit norms? 40-50% males, 35-45% females
What are the WBC norms? 5-10,000/mm
An increase in WBC is called leukocytosis, this is seen in patients with? bacterial infection, inflammatory response
A decrease in WBC is called leukopenia, this is seen is pt's with? systemic disease, chemo, radiation
The differential count gives the? % or number of each type of cell in a sample of 100 wbc's
A decreased RBC, HB, Hct is an anemia, this can be caused by? increased RBC breakdown, Decreased RBC production, blood loss
What is the shortcut for RBC, HB, Hct? If you multiply RBC by 3 you get HB, if you multiply HB by 3 you get Hct
Polycythemia is an increased RBC, HB, and Hct, this is caused by? primary-polycythemia vera (unknown cause), secondary-a condition stimulates the bone marrow to produce more rbc's
What are some secondary causes of polycythemia vera? chronic hypoxemia/lung disease (COPD, pum fibrosis), high altitudes
Polycythemia can cause RT heart failure, to treat it use? oxygen to treat the hypoxemia
Neutropenia is a decreased neutrophil count and is seen in? septic shock, overwhelming infection
Neutrophilia is increased neutrophils (first responders), this indicates? bacterial infection (pneumonia)
Eosinophilia(Increased) is associated with? Allergic disorders (asthma), parasitic infections If found in sputum, always indicates asthma!
Lymphocytosis (increased) is associated with? viral infection
Lymphocytopenia (decreased) is associated with? HIV, T4 and T8 ratio decreases with AIDS T4 are helper cells, T8 are suppressor cels
The first defense is neutrophils, the last defense is? monocytes, predominant cell after 48 hours, once in tissues they are called histiocytes
Monocytosis (increased) is seen with? chronic infection (TB)
Platelets are your clotting cells, normal is? 50,000-400,000mm <20,000 increased bleeding risk, spontaneous internal hemorrhage (IVH) Thrombocytopenia
What are signs of thrombocytopenia? petechiae (red, purple spots) ecchymosis(blue, black spots) caused by indomethacin, heparin, prednisone, INH, bone marrow disease
What are the normal electrolyte values? Sodium 135-145, Potassium 3.5-5.0, Chloride 95-105
Hyponatremia is a sodium level <135, causes and signs of this are? Causes- sweating, burns, diuretics Signs- abdominal cramps, muscle twitching
Hypernatremia is a sodium level >145, causes and signs of this are? Causes- dehydration, hyperaldosteronism Signs- excessive thirst, dry tongue
Hypokalemia is a potassium <3.5, causes and signs? Causes- vomiting, diarrhea, diuretics (lasix, albuteral) Signs- U wave(extra wave after T), Flat T waves and depressed ST segment
Hyperkalemia is a potassium >5.0, causes and signs? Causes- tissue (cell) breakdown, renal failure Signs- peaked, tall T waves, wide QRS
Hypochloremia is a chloride level <95, causes and signs? Causes-vomiting, diuretics Signs- metabolic alkalosis, chloride and bicarb indirectly related, decrease chloride increase bicarb
Hyperchloremia is a chloride level > 105, causes and signs? Causes- diarrhea, nephritis Signs- metabolic acidosis, hyperventilation
Created by: juialynn92
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