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Skull- Cranium bones

Procedures 2. (Cranial bones, sutures/joints..) Chap 11

4 bones of Calvarium? (skullcap) Frontal, Right parietal, Left parietal, Occipital
4 bones of the floor? Right temporal, Left temporal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid
Frontal bone consists of 2 main parts, What are they and what do they form? Squamous or vertical forms forehead, orbital or horizontal form superior part of orbit (termed SOM).
Smooth, raised prominence between eyebrows? glabella
slight depression above each eyebrow? Supraorbital groove (SOG)
Why is the SOG an important landmark? Corresponds to the floor of the anterior fossa of the cranial vault. (which is level of the orbital plate, or the highest level of the facial bone mass)
What is the SOM? Supraorbital margin, superior rim of each orbit
Supraorbital notch is a small hole within the SOM, slightly ____ to its midpoint. What passes through this opening? medial. Supraorbital nerve and artery pass through
On each side of the _____ portion of the frontal bone above the SOG is a larger, round prominence termed _______. Squamous, frontal tuberosity
The ________ on each side forms the superior part of each orbit. (Frontal bone) orbital plate
Each orbital plate is separated from the other by the what? Ethmoidal notch.
Frontal bone articulates with what 4 cranial bones? right and left parietals, sphenoid, ethmoid
Frontal bone articulates with how many facial bones? 8
What forms the lateral walls of cranium and part of the roof? parietal
Parietal bones have a _____ internal surface. concave
The widest portion of the skull is located between the _____ of the two parietal bones parietal tubercles
Each parietal bone articulates with what 5 cranial bones? frontal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, and opposite parietal.
The external surface of the occipital bone has a rounded part called the ______, which forms most of the back of the head. squamous portion
The squamous portion of the occipital bone is superior to the _______ or ____, which is the prominent bump at the inferoposterior portion of skull. external occipital protuberance, or inion
What bone has the large opening for the spinal cord to pass through, termed ____. occipital has foramen magnum
Where are the two convex oval process that articulate with the atlas? Occipital condyles are on each side of the foramen magnum. (joints are called atlanto-occipital)
Occipital bone articulates with what 6 bones? two parietals, two temporals, sphenoid, and atlas (C1)
What bone/s house the organs of hearing? temporal
left Temporal bone is situated between the greater wing of the sphenoid _____, and the ______ posteriorly. anteriorly, occipital
Extending anteriorly from the squamous portion of the temporal bone is an arch termed the zygomatic process
what 2 processes form the zygomatic arch? zygomatic process of the temporal bone meets the temporal process of the zygomatic bone (one of the facial bones)
Inferior to the zygomatic process and just anterior to the _____, is the ________, into which the mandible fits to form the ____ joint. EAM, temporomandibular (TM) fossa, tempomandibular joint (TMJ)
Projecting off temporal bone, inferior to the mandible and anterior to the EAM is a slender bony projection called styloid process
each temporal bone is divided into what 3 parts squamous, mastoid, petrous
portion of the temporal bones that is the thin upper portion, forms part of the wall of the skull squamous
portion of temporal bones that is posterior to the EAM? mastoid
portion of temporal bones that house the organs of hearing, including the mastoid air cells? petrous
petrous portion of temporal bones is aka _____ or ______ or _____ petrous pyramid or pars petrosal or petromastoid portion
The _____ portion of the _______ bone is the thickest and densest in the skull petrous portion (pyramid shaped portion) of the temporal bones
The petrous pyramids project anteriorly and toward the midline of the area of the ___ EAM
Petrous ridge of these pyramids corresponds to the level of what external landmark TEA
Near the center of the petrous pyramid on the posterior surface just superior to the jugular foramen is an opening called the _________ which transmits nerves of hearing internal acoustic meatus
Temporal bone articulates with what 3 cranial bones parietal, occipital, sphenoid
temporal bones articulate with how many facial bones 2 (mandible & zygomatic)
____ bone forms the anchor for all 8 cranial bones sphenoid
What contains the sphenoid sinus? central portion of sphenoid, the body
Central depression on the body of the sphenoid sella turcica
What partially surrounds and protects the pituitary gland? sella turcica
pituitary gland is aka hypophysis cerebri
"back of the saddle" is termed dorsum sellae
Shallow depression on the posteroinferior aspect of the dorm sellae clivus
clivus begins where and extends to where? posteroinferior aspect of dorsum sellae, extends posteriorly to foramen magnum
The ____ wings are triangular and nearly horizontal, ending medially in the two _____ clinoid processes lesser, anterior
The ____ wings form a portion of the floor and sides of cranium greater
Which wings of the sphenoid extend from the body? Which project from the superoanterior portion of the body? greater, lesser
What are the 3 pairs of openings in the greater wings of the sphenoid foramen rotundum, ovale, spinosum
Arising from the posterior aspect of the lesser wings are two projections termed anterior clinoid processes
The ____ clinoids are larger and spread farther apart than the ____ clinoids. anterior, posterior
The posterior clinoid processes extend superiorly from the _____ dorsum sellae
The grooves between the body of the sphenoid and lesser wings begin in the center as the _______ or optic groove, which leads on wash side to an optic canal, which ends at the ______ foramen chiasmatic, optic
Slightly lateral and posterior to the optic foramina on each side are irregularly shaped openings termed superior orbital fissures
The more lateral, flat extensions from the body of sphenoid are called ____ processes lateral pterygoid
What pterygoid processes of the sphenoid end inferiorly in small hooklike processes? and what are these called? medial pterygoid processes have pterygoid hamuli
the pterygoid processes or plates form part of the lateral walls of the _____ nasal cavities
Sphenoid articulates with how many cranial bones? all 7
Sphenoid articulates with what 5 facial bones? right and left palatine bones, right and left zygomatic, vomer
____ bone lies primarily below the floor of the cranium ethmoid
Upper horizontal portion of ethmoid that contains small openings for olfactory nerves to pass? cribiform plate
Projecting superiorly from the cribiform plate is the ____ crista galli
____ of the ethmoid helps form the nasal septum perpendicular plate
the two _______ are suspended from the undersurface of the cribiform plate on each side of the perp plate (ethmoid) lateral labyrinths (masses)
The _____ of the ethmoid contain the ethmoid air cells or sinuses and help form the medial walls of the orbits and lateral walls of the of the nasal cavity lateral masses (labyrinths)
Extending medially and down from the medial wall of each labyrinth are thin projections termed the superior and medial nasal conchae or turbinates
Ethmoid articulates with what 2 cranial bones? frontal and sphenoid
ethmoid articulates with how many facial bones? 11
The ethmoid is located ____ to the sphenoid anteriorly
Ethmoid. The crista galli and cribiform plate project ____, and the larger perpendicular plate extends ____. superiorly, inferiorly
sutures of cranium are classified as what kind of joints? fibrous, syntharthrodial
What suture separates the frontal from the 2 parietal bones? coronal
Suture that separates the two parietal bones in the midline? sagittal
Posteriorly, the ___ suture separates the parietal bones from the occipital lambdoidal
the _____ sutures are formed by the inferior junctions of the 2 parietal bones with their respective temporal bones squamosal
The anterior end of the sagittal suture is termed the _____ and the posterior end is called the ______. Bregma, lambda
The right and left _____ are points at the junction of the parietals, temporals, and greater wings of sphenoid pterions
The ____ are at the posterior end of the sphenoparietal suture pterions
The right and left ____ are points posterior to the ear where the squamosal and lambdoidal sutures meet. asterions
Certain regions where sutures join slower in their ossification fontanels
Cranial sutures generally do not ossify completely until what age? Some may not completely close until when? mid to late 20s, until fifth decade of life
Early bregma and lambda are soft spots in early life, they are termed fontanels. _____ fontanel is the largest and does not completely close until about ______ age anterior (bregma), 18 months
Two smaller lateral fontanels (so not anterior and posterior) that close soon after birth are the _____ (___ in an adult) and _____ (____ in an adult). sphenoid (pterion) and mastoid (asterion)
Where are the sphenoid and mastoid fontanels located? at the sphenoid and mastoid andles of the parietal bones on each side of the head
In an infant, the anterior fontanel would be what in an adult? Bregma
In an infant, the right mastoid fontanel would be what in an adult? right asterion
Small, irregular bones that sometimes develop in adult sutures can be called ____ or ___ bones sutural or wormian bones.
Where are sutural or wormian bones often found? in the lambdoidal suture.. occasionally in the fontanels, especially posterior.
Shape of the average head is termed mesocephalic
Average measurements of the adult skull? ___cm between parietal eminences, ___cm from frontal eminence to external occipital protuberance, and ___ cm from vertex to beneath chin 15, 19, 23
for an average mesocephalic skull, the width is __-___% of the length. 75-80%
A short, broad head is termed _____ brachycephalic
A long, narrow head is termed dolichocephalic
width of the brachycephalic type is __% or greater than the length. The width of the dolichocephalic type is less than ___% if the length 80%, 75%
In the mesocephalic head, the petrous pyramids form an angle of ___ degrees. In the brachycephalic skull, the angle is __________, (approximately ___ degrees), and in the dolichocephalic skull the angle is _________, (approx. _____ degrees). 47 degrees. Brachy- greater than 47 degrees, approx 54. Dolicho- less than 47 degrees, approx 40.
Created by: Zoest35