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NECC-acidbase balanc

ACID/BASE BALANCE

QuestionAnswer
What is reabsorption? Reabsorption is the active or passive transport of filtrate substances back into the tubule cell and then into the blood of nearby capillaries -Egan, Chapter 12, page 277
Define the law of electroneutrality. States that the total number of positive charges must equal the total number of negative charges in the body fluids -Egan, Chapter 12, page 288
What occurs when any physiological process lowers PaCO2 less than 35 mmHg and raises pH more than 7.45? Respiratory Alkalosis -Egan, Chapter 12, page 286
What occurs when any physiological process raises PaCO2 more than 45mmHg and lowers pH less than 7.35? Respiratory Acidosis -Egan, Chapter 12, page 284
What type of breathing pattern is exhibited by patients with severe diabetic ketoacidosis? Kussmaul's respiration -Egan, Chapter 12,page 290
Name three renal causes of metabolic alkalosis Diuretics, Hyperkalemia, Hypervolemia, Hyperchloremia. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 291, Box 12-6
In normal lungs, name 3 causes of respiratory acidosis. Anesthesia, Sedative drugs, Narcotic analgesia -Egan, Chapter 12, page 285
How can hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis be iatrogenically induced? The hyperventilation an be caused by overly aggressive mechanical ventilation as well as deep breathing and lung expansion procedures. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 286
Define partly compensated respiratory alkalosis. Low PaCO2, low HCO3-, and alkalitic pH not in the normal range. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 287.
Define fully compensated respiratory acidosis. High PaCO2, high HCO3-, pH on the acidic side of normal pH. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 285.
True or False. A patient with pneumonia or pulmonary edema can be hyperventilating. True. These two processes can expel CO2 faster than it is produced. -Egan,Chapter 12, page 286.
What is the blood buffer base? The blood buffer base is the sum of bicarbonate and nonbicarbonate bases in the mmol/L of blood. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 273
What is the difference between an open buffer system and a closed buffer system? In an open buffer system, some of the solutes are removed from the body, while in a closed system, they are kept and used within the system of reactions. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 273
What are the differences between excretion and secretion? Excretion is the elimination of substances from the body in the urine. Secretion is the process by which renal tubule cells actively transport substances into the filtrate. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 277.
Name the two primary acid-excreting organs. Lungs and kidneys. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 277
How does the Henderson-Hasselbach equation determine [H+]? The H-H equation determines hydrogen ion concentration by computing the ration between undisassociated acid molecules [H2CO3] and base ions [HCO3-]. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 275
What are the normal areterial PCO2 and arterial bicarbonate concentration values? PaCO2 = 40 mmHg and HCO3- = 24 mEq/L -Egan, Chapter 12, page 281
How is base excess determined? Determined by equilibrating a blood sample in the laboratory to a PCO2 of 40 mmHg at standard body temperature Celsius and recording the amount of acid or base needed to titrate 1L of blood to a pH of 7.40. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 294.
What is a combined acid-base disturbance? A disturbance where they are both respiratory and metabolically related. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 294.
What corrective measures are used in correcting hypokalemia? Potassium chloride (KCl), dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl), or ammonium chloride (NH3Cl) may be infused directly into a large central vein. -Egan, Chapter 12, page 293
Created by: NECCJobMartinez