Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Gait Deviations

Common gait deviations in LE

Deviation Description Possible CausesAnalysis
Initial contact - Foot flat Entire foot contacts the ground at heel strike Excessive fixed dorsiflexion flaccid or weak dorsiflexors neonatal/proprioceptive walking Check ROM of ankle; check for hyperextension at the knee and persistence of immature gait pattern
Initial contact - Excessive knee flexion Knee flexes or buckles rather than extends as foot hits the ground Painful knee; spasticity of knee flexors or weak quadriceps; short leg on contralateral side Check for pain at knee; tone of knee flexors; strength of knee extensors; leg length; anterior pelvic tilt
Initial contact to foot flat - Excessive hip flexion Flexion exceeding 30 degrees at the hip Hip and/or knee flexion contracture; knee flexion caused by weak soleus and quadriceps; hypertonicity of hip flexors Check hip and knee ROM and strength of soleus and quads; check tone of hip flexors
Initial contact to foot flat - Limited hip flexion Hip flexion does not reach 30 degrees Weakness of hip flexors; limited range of hip flexion; glut max weakness Check strength of hip flexors and extensors; analyze hip ROM
Midstance - Excessive position plantar flexion Tibia does not advance to neutral from 10 degrees of plantar flexion No eccentric contraction of plantar flexors due to flaccidity/weakness in plantar flexors; surgical overrelease, rupture, or contraction of achilles tendon Check for spastic or weak quads; hyoerextension at knee or hip; backward or forward leaning trunk; weakness or rupture of achilles tendon
Midstance - Heel lift in midstance Heel does not contact ground in midstance Spasticity of plantar flexors Check for spasticity in plantar flexors, quads, hip flexors, and adductors
Midstance - Excessive positional dorsiflexion Tibia advances too rapidly over the foot, creating a greater than normal amount of dorsiflexion Inability of plantar flexors to control tibial advance; knee or hip flexion contractures Test ankle muscles, knee and hip flexors, and trunk position
Midstance - Toe clawing Toes flex and "grab" floor Plantar grasp reflex not fully integrated; positive supporting reflexes; spastic toe flexors Check plantar grasp reflex, positive supporting reflexes, and ROM of toes
Initial contact- Foot slap At heel strike, forefoot slaps the ground Flaccid or weak dorsiflexors; atrophy of dorsiflexors Look for low muscle tone at ankle; Steppage gait in swing phase
Initial contact - Toes first Toes contact ground instead of heel; tip toe posture may stay throughout phase or heel may contact ground Leg length discrepancy; contracted heel cord; plantar flexion contracture; spasticity of plantar flexors; flaccidity of dorsiflexors; painful heel Compare leg length and look for hip and/or knee flexion contractures; analyze muscle tone and timing of plantar flexors; check pain in heel
Created by: jvlassov
More popular Physical Therapy sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards