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Normal Gait

Muscle activation during normal gait activites

Phase of GaitActivity in the AnkleActivity in the KneeActivity in the Hip
Midstance (midstance) The soleus begins firing and then is joined by the gastroc as the knee extends to control forward progression of the tibia The quadriceps is active until the extension torque begins. The knee is stabilized by the calf muscles that restrain the tibia No hip muscle activity is required in the sagittal plane. The pelvis is stabilized in the frontal plane by the hip abductor group
Terminal Stance (heel off) The calf muscles remain active to prevent forward tibial collapse and to allow the heel to rise No muscle activity at the knee The posterior fibers of the TFL shut off and the anterior fibers fire briefly, possibly to restrain hyperextension of the hip
Preswing (toe off) Calf muscle activity rapidly decreases to a low level and then ceases early in preswing Motion occurs without knee flexor activity . The rectus femoris may act to restrain the rapid passive knee flexion Momentum enables the femur to fall forward, aided by the adductor longus and the rectus femoris
Initial Swing (acceleration) The pretibial muscles are active to initiate dorsiflexion. The short head of the biceps, the sartorius, and the gracilis are active. Knee flexion is aided by flexion at the hip The iliacus, gracilis, sartorius, and adductor longus are active
Midswing (midswing) The pretibial muscles are active Knee extension is created by momentum and gravity. The short head of the biceps may control the rate of knee extension The iliacus, gracilis, and sartorius stop firing in late midswing. Hamstrings begin to fire
Terminal Swing (deceleration) The pretibial muscles continue to stay active The quadriceps is active concentrically to insure full knee extension. The hamstrings are active eccentrically to decelerate the leg and thigh The lower fibers of the glut max and the adductor magnus begin to fire at a low intensity in preparation for their role in weight bearing
Initial Contact (heel strike) Tibialis anterior and long toe extensors (pretibial muscles) position the foot for loading response The quadriceps continues to contract in preparation for loading response. The hamstrings act to counteract the brief extension torque The semimembranosus, long head of the biceps femoris, and semitendinosus are now active as hip extensors. All of the hip extensors are active in preparation for their role in loading response
Loading Response (foot flat) The pretibial muscles contract eccentrically in reaction to the plantarflexion torque The quadriceps contracts eccentrically to meet torque demands and to absorb shock. The hamstrings act primarily as hip extensors The lower fibers of glut max, adductor magnus, and the hamstrings are active to counteract the flexion torque. The posterior TFL, glut med, glut min, and upper fibers of the glut max contract to stabilize the pelvis in the frontal plane
Created by: jvlassov