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9Sci CH 8

Solids, Liquids & Gases

States of matter solid, liquid, gas and plasma are the four states of matter
Kinetic theory of matter tiny, particles in constant motion
Crystal in most solids the particles are arranged in repeating geometric patterns
Plasma is a gas-like mixture of positively and negatively charged particles
Thermal expansion almost all matter expands as it gets hotter and contracts when it cools
Polluted water refers to water that contains such high levels of unwanted materials that it is unacceptable for drinking or other purposes
Thermal pollution excess heat in the water
Evaporation a liquid changes to a gas gradually at temperature below the boiling point
Condensation takes place when a gas changes to a liquid
Heat of fusion the amount of energy needed to change a material from the solid state to a liquid state
Heat of vaporization the amount of energy needed to change a material to a liquid and then to a gas
Pressure is the amount of force exerted per unit of area
Boyle’s Law if you decrease the volume of a container of gas the pressure of the gas will increase
Charles’ Law the volume of gas increases with an increase in temperature
Buoyant force the upward force on an object immersed in it
Archimedes’ Principle the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Pascals’ Principle pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted unchanged throughout the fluid
Bernoulli’s Principle as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases
Created by: hockettd