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CardioPulmonary

CardioPulmonary Physiology - Units 6-7 SPC

QuestionAnswer
Location and shape of Kidneys Bean shaped. Behind peritoneal cavity, below diaphragm. Cephaled poles = T12, and Caudal poles = L3...RETROPERITONEAL
Anatomy of the Kidney Adrenal glands- hormones, Renal artery and vein, Ureters- urine to bladder
Components of the Kidney Cortex- DARK OUTER, Medulla- PALE INNER, Renal Pyramids- 8-12 converge in to the Papillary Ducts to Major and Minor Calyces make up the Renal pelvis
Blood Vessles of Kidney Renal Art, Interlobar Art, Arcuate Art, Interlobular Art, Afferent Arterioles, Glomerulus, Efferent, Peritubular Cap, Interlobular Vein, Arcuate V, Interlobar, V, Renal V
Nepheron functional unit of kidney. analgous to acinus
Glomerulus network of up to 50 parallel capillaries branch from afferent art.
Bowman's Capsule C- shaped expanded end of renal tubule holds glomerulus. Function = FILTER
Nephron Components Glomerulus, Bowman's Cap, Proximal tubule, Loop of Henle, Distal tubule, Collecting duct
2 Capillary Beds of Nephron Glomerular, Peritubular
Function of Glomerulus Ultrafilter of Blood. mean P 55
Function of Peritubular Capillary Tubular secretion, Tubular reabsorption
3 Processes of the Nephron Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Secretion, Tubular Reabsorption
Normal Glomerular Fitration Rate (GFR) 125ml/minute
Urine Output 60ml/hour or 1ml/minute
Glomerular Filtraion in relation to Pressure Glom BP 55mmHg, BowCap fluid P -15, Osmotic P -30 = NET FILTRATION PRESSURE 10mmHg
Glomerular Blood Vessels AFFERENT ART- constriction = Decrease GFR, dilate = increase GFR...EFFERENT ART- constriction = increase GFR, dilate = decrease GFR
Reabsorption of Renal tubules Out of Tubules and into Peritubular Cap...Glucose, Sodium, Calcium, Amino Acids
Secretion of Renal Tubules Out of Peritubular Cap in to Tubules....Creatinine
Water Transport of Tubular System Osmosis- 80% H2O reasbsorption occurs in Proximal Tubule via Osmosis. Glucose, Sodium and Chloride have strong influence
Transport Maximum MAX rate for a substance that is SECRETED or REABSORBED via active transport (TM)
TM of Glucose 320mg/min
TM of Creatinine 16mg/min
Tubular secretion of urea BUN Normal Plasma BUN 8-18mg/dL
Tubular Secretion of Creatinine Normal Plasma Creatinine 0.6-1.2mg/dL
AnitDiuretic Hormone (ADH) Secreted by Posterior Pituitary Gland, Influenced by Serum Osmolarity, Increase Osmol. triggers ADH release which DECREASES Urine output= WATER RETENTION
Total Body WATER Males-60%, Females 50%, Newborn-75%
MILLIMOLE (mmol) 1/1000 of a mole, molecular or atomic weight in milligrams
MILLIEQUIVALENT (mEq)IONIC Charge 1/1000 of Equivalent. Ionized substances. Electrolytes, Cations, anions
MILLIOSMOLE (mOsm) 1/1000 of osmole. How much solute you have in plasma. Glucose and Protein exert great osmotic influence
Major Intracellular Cations and concentration K-150mEq/L, Mg-25mEq/L, Na-15mEq/L
Major Intracellular Anions and conc. HPO4(Phosphate)-100mEq/L, Pr(Proteinate)-60, SO4(Sulfate)-20
Major Plasma Cations and conc. Na-140, K-5, Ca-5
Major Plamsa Anions and conc. Cl-105, HCO3-24
Anions Gap to see if metabolic imbalance. Sub HCO3 and Cl from Na and K. Normal = 10-20mEq/L
Clinical significance of Anion Gap if >22= METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
Normal Serum Osmolarity 275-300 mOsm/L
What determines Serum Osmolarity Sodium, Glucose and BUN
Loop Diuretics (LASIX)FAST AND POWERFUL inhibit reabsorption of Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride in Henle.
Thiazide Diuretics SLOWER Inhibit tubular reabsorption of Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride in distal tube. Bicarb is reabsorbed = METABOLIC ALKALOSIS
Osmotic Diuretics (MANNITOL) PULL a lot of fluid. Large molecular substance pass into tubules thru glomerular membrane and are not reabsorbed
ALDOSTERONE adrenal hormone- Increases Sodium reabsorption and Potassium secretion in response to Hyponatremia, Hyperkalemia, Hypovolemia, Decreased CO
Phosphate Buffer FAST, NOT LONG LASTING to prevent acidosis, gets rid of extra H ions by forming a salt
Ammonia Buffer SLOWER, LONG LASTING gets rid of extra H ions by forming a salt, synthesized in Renal tubules, effective for long term acidosis
Cause of Resp ACIDOSIS Central nervous system depression, anesthesia, sedative drugs, narcotic analgesics, barbituates, Restricive disorders like obesity and kyphoscoliosis, COPD
Causes of Resp ALKALOSIS Anxiety, Stimulant drugs, Pain, Stim of J receptor=rapid shallow breathing, Pain, Pulm. Vascvular disease, Athsma
Causes of Met. Acidosis Loss of Base/Bicarb, diarrhea, Renal tubular acidosis, Gain of Acid - Diabetic ketoacidosis, Lactic acid. alcohol keto.
Causes of Met. Alkalosis Increase in Base-Diuretic therapy, Loss of fixed acid- Severe vomitting, Naso suction
Created by: mac6672