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Ch. 5, 6, 12

Psych 101

TermDefinition
Describe the basic process of classical conditioning neutral stimulus + unconditioned stimulus: unconditioned response conditioned stimulus -----> conditioned response
What was the little Albert study (including the implications) Little Albert was shown a white rat and various other masks. Albert described to show no fear of any of these stimuli. However, what did startle him and cause him to be afraid was if a hammer was struck against a steel bar causing him to cry
Define punishment (2 types of punishment and drawbacks of using punishment) positive: addition of a punishing stimulus weakens an operant response neg: removal of a reinforcing stimulus weakens an operant response
What conditions increase the likelihood that a behavior will be imitated? reinforcement
What is conditioning? process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses
Classical conditioning learning associations between stimuli; reflex behavior, Pavlov, and Watson
Operant Conditioning learning associations between behavior and environmental consequence; non-reflexive, Thorndike, and Skinner
Observational learning (Bandura) learning through observation behavior of others
Rescorla classical conditioning involves learning the relationships between events ; CS must reliably predict UCS
Garcia classical conditioning occurs more readily when associations are biologically prepared; examples include case aversions and phobias
Stimulus generalization occurs when a new stimulus that is similar to the CS also produces the CR
Discrimination stimulus the specific stimulus in the presence of which a particular operant is more likely to be reinforced
Higher order conditioning occurs when an established CS functions as UCS in a new conditioning trial
Extinction CR will gradually weaken and disappear if the CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS
Spontaneous recovery a conditioned response that is extinguished is not unlearned or completely eliminated
reinforcement increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated
Punishment (include positive vs negative) decrease the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated
Define memory (3 fundamental processes) sensory memory short term memory long term
describe the duration and capacity of short term memory the active stage of memory in which information is stored for up to about 20 seconds
Pick 4 factors that can contribute to the development of false memories (explain them and give an example of each) 1. Source: forgetting the true source of a memory 2. False familiarity: increased feelings of familiarity due to repeatedly imagining an event 3. Misinformation effect: when wrong info received after an event leads to distorted memories of the event 4.
Stage model of memory
sensory memory (Sperling)
Short term memory
maintenance rehearsal
Working memory
long term memory
elaborative rehearsal
semantic network model
explicit vs implicit (episodic, semantic and procedural)
forgetting
Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
false memories and imperfect memories
BURNOUT (explain characteristics and describe work situations that are likely to lead to burnout and steps that can be taken to prevent) exhaustion, cynicism, and sense of failure or inadequacy (key components)
Describe the experience of the fight or flight response and explain conditions under which it'll be helpful harmful to physical health
what kind of stressors have been found to influence the effectiveness of the immune system and the practical implications of these findings
Define stress is a negative emotional state occurring in response to events that are perceived as taxing or exceeding a persons resources or ability to cope
Define stressors
Cognitive appraisal model the role of an individual 's evaluation of events and situations and of the resources that he or she has available to deal with the events or situations
life events and changes
acculturative stress
daily hassles every day, minor events that annoy and upset people
burnout
physical effects of stress
cannon and flight or fight response the rapidly occurring chain of internal physical reactions that prepare people to react to an immediate threat
individual factors that influence response to stress
coping
Who discovered the basic process of classical conditioning? Ivan Pavlov
What was the social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)? was an attempt to quantify and rank the impact of stress-producing events in a person's life
Traumatic events are events or situations that: are negative, severe, and far beyond our normal expectations for everyday life
What was Pavlov investigating when he began his studies on the phenomenon that eventually became known as classical conditions? the role of saliva in digestion
Resilience the ability to cope with stress and adversity, to adapt to negative or unforeseen circumstances, and to rebound after negative experiences
health psychology the branch of psychology that studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and helath-related behaviors
what has the greatest impact on the strength of the conditioned response? the timing of stimulus presentations
In classical conditioning, to produce a learned response what needs to be repeatedly paired with it? neutral stimulus and a stimulus that naturally elicits a response
Classical conditioning is a process of learning: an association between two stimuli
What are the two basic types of conditioning? Classical and Operant
Bandura Bobo doll demonstrated that reinforcement is not necessary for learning to occur; expectation of reinforcement affects the performance of what has been learned
Created by: TiffanyN