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Nature V. Nurture - It's hardly ever either, but the interaction of both. - Biology is not destiny, the environment can have an effect
Warrior Gene Causes you to be excessively aggressive
Cheater Gene Causes you to have the urge to cheat on your partner
Down syndrome chromosomes and traits Extra chromosome. Intellectual disability, and almond shaped wide set eyes.
Kleinfelters syndrome chromosomes and traits Extra x chromosome. Male has reduced male traits, enlarged breasts, obesity, and excessive height
Turners syndrome chromosomes and traits Missing an x chromosome. Females are short, unfertile, and sexually underdeveloped
How many chromosomes do people normally have 23
Dominant v. Recessive gene dominant: only pne parent needs to have the gene to pass it in Recessive: both parents must have the gene to pass it on
What is an allele A single strand of a gene that is inherited from a parent
What are the three periods of pregnancy? Germinal, Embyronic, Fetal
What happens during the germinal period? Fertilized zygote moves to the uturus. The mass of cells differenciate into specific types of cells. Placenta and umbilical cord forms
What happens during the embryonic period Organs and structures begon to form. Embryo is an inch long with little eyes, nose, teeth, lips, arms and legs. Also a beating heart
What happens during the fetal period Baby is a fetus. Growth and finishing. Organs develop more.
Name some teratogens, also what is a teratogen It's a factor or substance that can cause a birth defect. Ex. mercury, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, marijuana, cocaine, hot temperatures
What is the self-righting reflex If a child is born premarturely or underdeveloped, the child can catch up on development and certain milestones
Effects of alcohol on a baby - fetal alcohol syndrome Alcohol is the largest cause of birth defects. Symptoms include stunted growth, facial deformities, and brain damage
What 3 things does a baby start to do immediately after it's born Begins to breathe, blood begins to circulate, and body temperature is regulated
What are the 5 baby reflexes Grasping, startle, rooting, stepping, sucking
6 milestones for babies Raising head and chest, rolling over, sitting with support, sitting without support, crawling, walking
What are piagets 4 stages of development sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete observations, formal observations
Describe and say the age of the stage sensorimotor birth – 2. Senses and motor abilities to learn. Learns object permenance at the end of the stage
Describe and say the age of the stage preoperational 2 – 7. Developing language and concepts. Lots of questions. Believe everything they see (ex. Santa). Egocentrism, Centration, Irreversibility
Describe and say the age of the stage concrete observations 7 – 12. Understand conservation and reversible thinking. Don’t understand abstract concepts – must be able to see and touch for it to be real. Think they know more than their parents
Describe and say the age of the stage formal observations 12 – adult. Abstract and hypothetical thinking.
Egocentrism Preoperational stage. Can only see and understand the world through their own eyes
Centration Preoperational stage. focusus only on one feature rather than all features. Ex. Cuttting a piece of cake in half and thinking that means there's more cake, longer row of pennies = more pennies
Irreversibility Preoperational stage. Cannot reverse an action. Ex. pouring water in different sizes of glasses, mass differences with play dough.
Scaffolding and who came up with it Vygotski. the teacher teaches the learner mostly at the beginning of the learning process, and then slowly withdraws as the learners skills improve
Zone of proximital intelligence and who came up with it Vygotski. the difference between what the child can do on their own verses what they can do with help. Intelligence isn't what you know, it's what you can do.
Vygotskis theory of learning It's important to interact with objects and other people for cognitive development
Erik Erikson and his contributions and theory (self-concept?) studied personality and psychological development. developed the idea of self-concept: image of yourself that comes from the people you're surrounded with
Self concept in first year Trust v. Mistrust. Babies learn how their needs are met
Self concept from 1-3 Understand they control their own actions
Self concept from 3-5 Take responsibility for actions and develop self-control
Self concept from 5-12 compare themselves to others to determine success and failure
Self concept from 13-20 Decide who they are, what they believe, and who they cant to become
Self concept from 20-30 finding someone to share identity with in a relationship
Self concept from 40-50 find a way to nurture the next generation
Self concept from 60-100 coming to terms with the end of life. Wholeness and acceptance
5 stages of language development in babies cooing (make vowel sounds), babbling (make consonant sounds), one word speech (actual words), telegraphic speech (string words together [baby eat]), whole sentances (by 6 they are nearly fluent)
Temprement behavioral characteristics established at birth as part of your personality. The basis of personality
3 classifications of temperment - Easy: happy, easily soothed, adapts easily to change - Difficult: loud, active, crabby - Slow to warm up: slow to adapt to change
Mary Ainsworths study How children react when put in situations with a parent and stranger – attachment styles. Secure, avoidant, ambivilant, disorganized/disoriented.
Secure attachement and what mom is like explore. Wary but calm in the presence of a stranger as long as momma is nearby. Easily soothed after being upset when momma leaves. - Loving, warm. Sensitive to childrens needs and communications
Avoidant attachement and what mom is like No interest or concern with who is around, whether stranger or mother - Unresponsive, insensitive, rejecting
ambivilant attachement and what mom is like Doesn't explore, doesn't like strangers at all, hard to soothe when momma leaves - tried to be responsive, but were inconsistent and insensitive to the babies actions
Disorganized/disoriented attachement and what mom is like unable to decide how to react when momma gets back - Abusive and neglectful
Harry Harlows idea and study - Attachment is more than just for food, but for contact comfort. - He had a wire surrogate mom with food, and a soft surrogate monkey mom. The baby monkeys spent more time with the soft monkey mom
What are 3 facts about vaccines - Children cannot get the disease if they have an immunization - MMR vaccine does not cause autism in children - Immunization is needed because childhood diseases are still a thing
What are the effects of mercury? How much should you have? Can pregnant women have it? Mercury is a teratogen that causes intellectual disability, and blindness in babies. You’re safe to eat fish twice a week but no more than that. Pregnant women are safe too
Created by: sara_hillyer
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