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Chest and Abdomen


KUB Abdomen Position:Supine Projection:Anteroposterior CR:at iliac crest/MSP
Abdominal Routines *AP (supine) *AP (erect) *Left Lateral Decubitus *Dorsal Decubitus **PA CXR may also be included
Pubic Symphsis *Must be at the bottom of the film on Supine KUB **If not, you may do a bladder shot(10x12cw)
PA Abdomen Position:Erect Anterior Projection:Posteroanterior CR:2" above iliac crest on MSP
AP Abdomen Position:Erect posterior Projection:Anteroposterior CR:2" above iliac crest **High enough to include diaphragm
Left Lateral Decubitus Abdomen Position:Left Lateral Decubitus Projection:AP or PA CR:2" above iliac crest/MSP
Abdominal Exams must included *40" SID *14x17 LW *Suspended expiration
Anatomy of Digestive System mouth *pharynx *esophagus *stomach *small intestine *large intestine *anus **LESSPAM
Accessory Organs teeth *salivary glands *liver and gallbladder *pancreas
Hysterosalpingogram Shows where reproductive organs are located in the female
Peritoneum Lines the abdominopelvic cavity
Dorsal Decubitus (Abdomen) Position:Dorsal Decubitus Projection:R or L Lateral CR:2" above iliac crest on MCP **Shows air/fluid when the patient can't stand
Peritoneum Double wall sac called Peritoneal cavity *Outer-parietal *Inner-Visceral
Correct exposure Technique *Lower border of liver *L&R kidney *Lower ribs *L&R Psoas muscles *Tranverse Process of lumbar spine **All found above the iliac crest
Contents of Abdominal *stomach *intestines *liver *gallbladder *spleen *pancreas *kidneys & ureters
Contents of Pelvic Cavity *rectum *urinary bladder *reproductive organs
Abdominal Anatomy *Divides into 2 cavities (Thoracic & abdominal) *Top of abdominal cavity is the diaphragm; bottom is pelvic cavity *Together forming Abdominopelvic Cavity
Abdominal Landmarks (Topography) *L-2/L-3 Inferior costal margins *L-4/L-5 iliac crest *S-1/S-2 A.S.I.S *Greater trochanters (Pubic symphysis & Coccyx)
Epiglottis Situated above the larynx opening ** The "lid" to prevent food from going in the trachea
Esophageal Hiatus Is the opening in the diaphragm for the esophagus
Hilum Is a depression in the lungs where bronchi and vessels pass
Lateral criteria for Chest When the posterior ribs are superimposed of each other
Inspiration and Expiration films are ordered for chest.... Pneumothorax * F/B * Atelectasis
Carina Point of Bifurcation
PA Oblique Chest Position:RAO/LAO Projection:PA Oblique CR:Perpendicular midthorax @T-7 sagittal plane
Thoracic Cavity has 3 chambers *Pericardial * Right Pleural * Left Pleural
Why left lateral projection? Places the heart closer to film, reduces magnification of the heart.
How do you center for a chest left lateral projection? *CR perpendicular to the IR *MCP *T-7
Mediastinum *Thymus gland *Heart *Esophagus *Trachea **THET**
Properly Penetrated (Chest) *Aperture *Carina *Costophrenic angles *Clavicle *Aorta arch *Hemidiaphragms *Ribs *Trachea
Why is the patient erect for a chest x-ray? *Prevents engorgement of pulmonary vessels **Allows diaphragm to reach its lowest position, giving maxium visualization of the lungs ***Allows for demonstration of free air/fluid levels
Pharynx *Nasopharynx *Oropharynx *Laryngopharynx
Nasopharynx directly continuous with the nasal passages (superior)
Oropharynx between the soft palate and upper edge of the epiglottis (middle)
Laryngopharynx the lower part of the pharynx
Larynx (voice box) *suspended from the hyoid bone **Airway leading to the trachea and lungs ***epiglottis
Fissure Right Lung: Oblique & Horizontal fissure ** Left Lung: Oblique fissure
Evaluation criteria for a chest x-ray *No rotation * aperture to costophrenic angles *long scale of constrast *10 posterior ribs above the diaphragm
High kVP and long/low contrast will have... a faint visualization of the thoracic spine through the shadow of the heart
Respiratory System *Pharynx *Trachea *Bronchi *Lungs *Mouth & nose
Contents of Thoracic Cavity *Heart *Lungs *Respiratory organs *Cardiovascular system *Lymphatic system *Esophagus *Thymus gland
How do you check for rotation in the chest x-rays? Sternoclavicular joints are equal distance to the spine
Created by: mandy91lou