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Pulmonary Disease 4


The term interstitial lung disease refers to a? broad group of inflammatory ling disorders
What are some anatomic alterations of the lung associated with interstitial lung disease? destruction of alveoli and pulmonary capillaries, Fibrotic thickening, granulomas, honeycombing, cavity formation, pleural plaques, bronchospasm, excessive secretions
Other problems associated with interstitial lung disease? increased WOB and RR, decreased compliance, decreased DLCO, decreased TLC. Normal ABG until substantial lung injury occurs,
What is the most common medication given for interstitial lung disease? corticosteriods
Interstitial lung disease of a known cause can be caused by? occupational, environmental, and therapeutic exposures
What is pneumoconiosis? a disease of the lungs due to inhalation of dust, characterized by inflammation, coughing, and fibrosis
Inorganic particulate (dust) can cause? Asbestosis, common form of interstitial lung disease
Common sources with asbestos fibers? insulation, fire fighting suits, cements, roofing material, brake lining, automobiles, floor tiles, mechanics
The asbestosis fibers are inhaled, perforate the alveoli and enter the pleural cavity, this causes? pleural calcification, this diagnosis asbestosis
Large amounts of coal dust causes? coal workers pnuemoconiosis ( black lung)
Coal dust by itself is chemically inert, what causes the CWP? the slicia found in the coal, silicone dioxide particles (causes silicosis)
Inorganic materials exposure causes interstitial lung disease, this is also called pneumoconiosis. These causes are? dust, asbestos, coal, silica, beryllium
Organic material exposure can cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis, this eventually? causes interstitial lung disease, it is a cell mediated response cause by inhalation of offending agents or antigens
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by mouldy hay? farmers lung
What are other hypersensitivity pneumonitis causes? Byssinosis (cotton), Aspergillosis ( organism present everywhere, some people are allergic) Sick building syndrome... This has nothing to do with histoplasmosis!
Common occupations associated with silica exposure? sandblasting, tunneling, hard rock mining, stonecutting, caeramics, brick making
Other causes of inorganic interstitial lung disease? Siderosis (iron, welders), Talcosis ( talcs, ceramic workers)
Interstitial lung disease can be generally caused by? inorganic substance, organic substance, or systemic disease
What are some systemic drugs that can present as interstitial lung disease? rheumatoid arthritis, caplans syndrome, systemic lupus, sarcoidosis, collagen vascular disease
Rheumatoid arthritis can present as not just joint pain? an inflammatory join disease that can involve the lungs, can present as pleurisy with or without effusion (pleural effusion)
Caplans syndrome can be caused by rheumatoid arthritis, it is? ( aka rheumatoid pneumoconiosis) pulmonary fibrosis of the lung common in coal minors
Collagen vascular disease is? a common form of systematically caused ILD
Systemic lupus has the highest incidence of or causing lung disease, the percentage? Involvement of the lungs appears in 50%-70% of cases
Lung changes associated with systemic lupus? pleurisy with or without effusion, atelectasis, diffuse infiltrates, pneumonitits, diffuse ILD, pulm edema, diaphragm disfunction, infection
Sarcoidosis is of unknown origin, it is characterized by? tubercles, and non necrotizing epitheloid tissue (granuloma)
What is the clinical hallmark of sarcoidosis? an increase in the three major immunoglobulins ( IgM, IgG, and IgA)
With sarcoidosis women are? affected more often than men, more common in african americans
Idiopathic ILD has an unknown cause, it is? inflammatory and progressive with varying degrees of fibrosis. can be known at hammen-rick syndrome ( was discovered by him)
Diagnosis of an idiopathic ILD is done by? open lung biopsy, most diagnosed with this have a more progressive course and usually death occurs withing 4-10 years, difficult diagnosis
Goodpastures syndrome is an ILD of unknown cause and origin, it involves? two organ systems, the lungs and kidneys, in the lungs there are recurrent episodes of pulmonary hemorrhage and fibrosis
Chest assessment finding for ILD? honeycombing on xray, crackles or bronchial breath sounds, pleural friction rub
The management of ILD is directed at? the inflammation associated with the various disorders
Cancer is a term that? refers to abnormal new tissue growth, progressive uncontrolled multiplication of cells, the new growth is called a tumor
Lung cancer is characterized by? inflammation, swelling, and destruction of bronchial airways and alveoli, excessive mucous production, atelectasis, cavity formation
The most common cause of cancer? cigarette smoking, industrial asbestos is 2nd mist common
Male smokers are 22 times more likely to develop lung cancer, females? are 12 times more likely
Small cell cancer (oat cell) ? most aggressive and responds best to chemotherapy and radiation therapy, no surgery
Small cell cancer accounts for 14% of lung cancers, it is associated with? cigarette smoking , worst prognosis
Non small cell is more common and accounts for? 75-85% of all lung cancers, usually gets surgery then chemo or radiation
What are the non small cell cancers? squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell (undifferentiated)
Squamous cell accounts for? 30% of lung cancers
Adenocarcinoma has what features? glandular configuration and excess mucous production
Adenocarcinoma is more common women and is not? associated with smoking, it is the most common form of cancer is non smokers
Large cell carcinoma accounts for? 10-15% of lung cancers
Cancer can present with pretty much any type of symptoms, some common ones are? weight loss, pneumonia, hemoptysis, abnormal xray, weakness, bone pain/weakness, seizures, loss of appetite, neurological problems, enlarged lymph nodes
Created by: juialynn92
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