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Pharm Unit 4- 24,25

Hypersonic intravenous fluid H2O moves from interstitial space to plasma
Hypertonic intravenous fluids treats? Edema removes excess fluids by excretion
Hypotonic intravenous fluid H2O moves from plasma to interstitial space
Hypotonic intravenous fluid treats? Dehydration & lowers BP
Isotonic intravenous fluid On fluid shift, H2O stays
Isotonic intravenoius fluids treats? Hypovolemia, decreases BP
Loop diuretic (high-ceiling) Block reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and H2O *potassium excretion increased
Loop diuretics work? At the ascending look of henle
Osmotic diuretics Used osmotic force pulling H2O into nephron to increase excreation. *includes nearly all elctrolytes.
Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitors (Diuretic) Reabsorption of bicarbonate ions inhibited
Osmotic diuretics work? At the proximal tubule and loop of henle
Carbonic Anahydrase inhibitors (diuretic) work? At the proximal convoluted ruble.
Thiaxide diuretics Block the Reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and H2O *potassium increased in excretion.
Thiazide diuretics work? At the distal convoluted tuble
Diuretics are used to manage? Heart failure, kidney failure, liver failure, cirrhosis, pulmonary edema, and hypertension.
Potassium-sparing diuretics Block transition of sodium *Reduce the secretion of potassium (spares the potassium when excreting)
Potassium-sparing diuretics work? At the collecting duct & late distal tubule
Important elecrolytes Sodium Na, Potassium K, chloride Cl
Renal pharmacotherapy used to manage dysfunction? (3) Diuretics Cardiovascular drugs <hypertension, heart failure Dietary nanagement <reducing sodium, Potassium, magnesium, phosphorus <restricting protein
Acute renal failure (Acutes fail not WIN) Waste, Imediate treatment, nephrotoxic drugs (NSAIDS)
Causes for acute renal failure? (H3,2D) Hyperfusion, heart failure, hemmorrhage, dysrhythmias, dehydration (blockage in urethra)
Chronic renal failure (Hron) History<hypertension, diabetes- things effecting small blood vessel Real long time unundiagnosed possible Nephrotoxic drugs (NSAIDS)
Kidneys secrete? (CRE) Calcitriol- active vit D, bone homeostasis Renin- BP regulation Erythropointin- RBC production
Kidneys regulate? (BEV) Balance acid-base Electrolytes Volume of fluid
Tests used to diagnose renal failure? "BUGIC to get diagnosed) BUN Urinalysis GFR- best Imaging or biopsy Creatine level
Renal failure considerations? Drug accumuation from decreased kidney function adjust dose to much can be fatal.
Colloids Increase osmotic pressure by drawing H2O from intracellular and interstitial spaces. Stays in intravascular spaces because molecules are too large to easily cross capillary membranes and plasma volume expands. (Hypertonic only)
Crystalloids Capable of leaving plasma and moving to interstitial and intracellular spaces. IV solutions w/ electrolytes used to replaces fluids and prompt urine output. (Tonicity applies)
Created by: Lauren.weekes



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