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vision for biological psychology

Binocular input stimulation from both eyes
Bipolar cell type of neuron in the retina that receives input directly from the receptors
Blindsight ability to localize objects within an apparently blind visual field
Color constancy ability to recognize the color of an object despite changes in lighting
Color vision deficiency inability to perceive color differences as most other people do
Complex cell cell type of the visual cortex that responds best to a light stimulus of a particular shape anywhere in its receptive field; its receptive field cannot be mapped into fixed excitatory and inhibitory zones
Cone type of retinal receptor that contributes to color perception
Dorsal stream visual path in the parietal cortex, sometimes known as the where or how pathway
End-stopped (hypercomplex) cell cell of the visual cortex that responds best to stimuli of a precisely limited type, anywhere in a large receptive field, with a strong inhibitory field at one end of its field
Feature detector neuron whose responses indicate the presence of a particular feature
Fovea area in the center of the human retina specialized for acute, detailed vision
Ganglion cell type of neuron in the retina that receives input from the bipolar cells
Horizontal cell type of cell that receives input from receptors and delivers inhibitory input to bipolar cells
Hypercomplex cell End-stopped cell; cell of the visual cortex that responds best to stimuli of a precisely limited type, anywhere in a large receptive field, with a strong inhibitory field at one end of its field
Inferior temporal cortex portion of the cortex where neurons are highly sensitive to complex aspects of the shape of visual stimuli within very large receptive fields
Koniocellular neurons ganglion cells located throughout the retina
Lateral geniculate nucleus thalamic nucleus that receives incoming visual information
Lateral inhibition restraint of activity in one neuron by activity in a neighboring neuron
Law of specific nerve energies statement that each nerve always conveys the same kind of information to the brain
Magnocellular neuron large-celled neuron of the visual system that is sensitive to changing or moving stimuli in a relatively large visual field
Midget ganglion cells ganglion cells in the fovea of humans and other primates
Motion blindness impaired ability to perceive the direction or speed of movement, despite otherwise satisfactory vision
MST medial superior temporal cortex, an area in which neurons are sensitive to expansion, contraction, or rotation of the visual field or to the movement of an object relative to its background
MT (or area V5) middle temporal cortex, an area activated by seeing objects in motion
Negative color afterimage result of prolonged staring at colored display then looking at a white surface, and sees green instead of red, red instead of green, yellow instead of blue, blue instead of yellow, black instead of white, and white instead of black
Opponent-process theory theory that we perceive color in terms of paired opposites: white versus black, red versus green, and blue versus yellow
Parvocellular neuron small-celled neuron of the visual system that is sensitive to color differences and visual details in its small visual field
Photopigment chemical that releases energy when struck by light
Primary visual cortex (area V1) area of the cortex responsible for the first stage of visual processing
Prosopagnosia impaired ability to recognize or identify faces
Pupil opening in the center of the iris through which light enters
Receptive field part of the visual field to which any one neuron responds
Retina rear surface of the eye, lined with visual receptors
Retinal disparity discrepancy between what the left eye sees and what the right eye sees
Retinex theory concept that when information from various parts of the retina reaches the cortex, the cortex compares each of the inputs to determine the color perception in each area
Rod type of retinal receptor that does not contribute to color perception
Saccade ballistic movement of the eyes from one fixation point to another
Secondary visual cortex (area V2) area of the visual cortex responsible for the second stage of visual processing
Sensitive period time early in development during which some event (e.g., an experience or the presence of a hormone) has a strong and long-lasting effect
Shape constancy ability to perceive the shape of an object despite the movement or rotation of the object
Simple cell type of visual cortex cell that has fixed excitatory and inhibitory zones in its receptive field
Strabismus condition in which the two eyes point in different directions
Trichromatic theory (or Young-Helmholtz theory) theory that we perceive color through the relative rates of response by three kinds of cones, with each kind maximally sensitive to a different set of wavelengths
Ventral stream visual paths in the temporal cortex, sometimes known as the what pathway
Visual agnosia impaired ability to identify visual objects despite otherwise satisfactory vision
Visual field area of the world that an individual can see at any time
Created by: jondoh
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