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Eup ch10-2Text Quest

Essentials of Understanding Psychology 7th ch 10 in text questions part 2

Who developed over 18,000 separate terms that can be used to describe personality? Gordan Allport
What are the three fundamental categories of traits? Cardinal, Central and Secondary
What is a cardinal trait? a single characteristic that directs most of a person's activities
what are central traits? major characteristics of an individual -usually number from 5 to 10 examples-honest and social
What are secondary traits? characteristics that affect behavior in fewer situations and are less influential than other traits example-reluctance to eat meat
What is a statistical method of identifying associations among a large number of variables to reveal more general patterns? Factor analysis
The most fundamental patterns or combinations of traits are called what? Factors
What did Raymond Cattell suggest about source traits? That 16 pairs of source traits represent the basic dimensions of personality.
What did Raymond Cattell develop? Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire or the 16 PF which provides scores for each of the source traits.
Who is Hans Eysenck? a psychologist who used factor analysis to identify patterns of traits, but found that personality could be best describe in terms of just three major dimensions
What are the 3 major dimensions of Eysenck theories? Extraversion, Neuroticism and Psychoticism
Match 1. Extraversion 2. Neuroticism 3.Psychoticism A. refers to degree to which reality is distorted B.Relates to degree of sociability C.Encompasses emotional stability A-3 B-1 C-2
What is the current most influential trait approach? "Big Five" which contends that five traits or factors lie at the core of personality
What are the five trait factors of the Big Five? Openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism
Learning approaches to personality focus on ____? The "outer" person. -learned responses to the external environment Internal events such as thoughts, feelings and motivations are ignored
Who is the most influential learning theorist? B.F. Skinner
What is B.F. Skinner's primary theory? Personality is a collection of learned behavior patterns
What is Skinner interested in -in relation to behavior? ways of modifying behavior-humans are infinitely changeable through the process of learning new behavior patterns
Who is Albert Bandura and what is his approach to behavior? theorist that is not a strict learning theorist but adapted view of social cognitive approach -people can foresee possible outcomes of behaviors without doing them
What is observational learning? viewing the actions of others and abserving the consequences
How do we develop self-efficacy? by paying close attention to our prior successes and failures
What is relationship harmony? a sense of success in forming close bonds with other people (More important to self esteem in Asian cultures)
What is a deterministic view of human behavior? maintaining that behavior is shaped primarily by forces beyond the control of the individual
psychoanalytic personality is determined by the unconscious forces
trait approaches personality in part as a mixture of genetically determined traits
learning theory reliance of deterministic principles deemphasizes the ability of people to pilot their own course through life
What does Roy Baumeister and his colleagues believe about self esteem? unjustified high self esteem can be psychologically damaging to the person who experiences it and can lead to undesirable outcomes.
Who is Auke Tellegen? personality psychologist who studies twins and examines personality traits of pairs of twins raised apart from each other, but are genetically identical.
temperament innate disposition
results of Tellegen examinations in major respects twins were similar in personality...some traits affected by heredity
Who is Carl Rogers? Major proponent/supporter of humanistic point of view who maintains that all humans have a need for self-actualization in which they realize their fullest potential.
Who is Abraham Maslow Humanistic theorist agrees with Carl Rogers
What are self-concepts? the set of beliefs they hold about what they are like as individuals
What is unconditional positive regard? Refers to an attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does
What are humanistic approaches criticized for? Making an assumption that people are basically "good" and for using nonscientific values to build supposedly scientific theories
Psychodynamic approach Freud, Jung, Horney, Adler
Trait approach Allport, Cattell, Eysenck
Learning approach Skinner, Bandura
Biological and Evolutionary Approach Tellegen
Humanistic Approach Rogers, Maslow
Created by: durr5
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