Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Exam2 History+System

Mental Philosophy/ Philosophy of the Mind branch of philosophy that studies the mind, mental events, consciousness, mental functions, and mental properties, as well as the relationship of these to the physical body. The mind/body problem is seen as the central issue in mental philosophy
Rationalists believe that mental operations or principles must be employed before knowledge can be attained. The validity or invalidity of certain propositions can be determined by carefully applying the rules of logic.
Rationalists pt. 2 Agrees that sensory information is often, if not always, an important first step in attaining knowledge but argues that the mind must then actively transform this information in some way before knowledge is attained.
Rationalists pt. 3 These explanations of human behavior usually emphasize the importance of logical, systematic, and intelligence thought processes. Tend to postulate an active mind. Typically assume that innate mental structures, principles, operation, or abilities w/ thou
Empiricists maintains that the primary source of all knowl. is sensory obs./exp. True knowl. can only be derived from or valid. by sens. exp. Emph. the role of sens. exp. Belief that sens. exp. is basis of all knowl. Knowl can't exist until sens evid 1st gathered
Mills Mental Mechanics/Physics James Mill's views of where ideas come from. Basically, it's the notion that complex ideas are always aggregates of simple ideas
Mental Chemistry John Stuart Mill's term to describe the proc. by which indiv. sensations can combine to to form a new sensation that is diff. from any of the indiv. sensations that constitute it
Locke's Sensations Ideas that result from sensory stimulation
Locke's Reflection ideas can result from reflection on the remnants of of prior sensory stimulation (mind's ability to reflect upon itself)
Hedonism Behavior is motivated by the desire for pleasure and the avoidance of pain
Utilitarianism Belief that the best society or government is one that provides the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Monads The infinite number of life units in the universe that are active and conscious. Indivisible units that comprise everything. All char. by consciousness, but some more than others. Goal of each is to think as clearly as is capable
Apperception conscious experience
Petite Perceptions a perception that occurs below the level of awareness because only a few monads are involved
Limen For Leibniz and Herbart, describes the border between conscious and unconscious mind. Also called threshold
Faculty Psychologists those who refer to various mental abilities or powers in their descriptions of the mind. A faculty is a mental ability
Categories of thought those innate attributes of the mind postulated to explain those subjective experience we have that cannot be explained in terms of sensory experience alone (time, causality, space, "all")
Categorical Imperative the innate rational principle that governed or should govern moral behavior
Psychic Mechanics Term used by Herbart to describe how ideas struggle with each other to gain conscious expression. (Borrowed from empiricist's concept of mental mechanics/physics) (although empiricists viewed it as a passive process and Herbart viewed it as an active proc
Apperceptive Mass Group of compatible ideas that we are consciious of or attending to at any given moment. Contains all ideas of which we are attending. At any given moment, compatible ideas gather in consciousness and form a group
Repression describes the force used to hold ideas that are incompatible with the apperceptive mass in the unconscious
Self Preservation Herbart's term to describe an idea's tendency to seek and maintain conscious expression
Law of continuity Leibniz's term contending that there are no major gaps or leaps in nature. Rather, all differences in nature are characterized by small gradations
Romanticism phil. that stresses the uniqueness of each person and that values irrationality much more than rationality. According to the romantic, people can and should trust their natural impulses
Existentialism Phil. that examines the meaning in life (meaning of human existence) and stress the freed om that humans have to choose their own destiny. Existentialism also stresses subjective experience and the uniqueness of indiv.
Enlightenment period during which Western phil. embraced the belief that unbiased reason or the objective methods of science could reveal the principles of governing the universe. Once discovered, these principles could be used for the betterment of humankind
Personal Equation Math. formula used to correct for diff in reaction time among observers. Rx time studies and the personal equation show that math can be applied to psych. phenomena in humans (may be necc. for psyc. to become a science)
Rx Time Studies experiments that note how long it takes a subject to respond to a predetermined stimulus with a predetermined response. Wundt believes Rx time studies are one way to exp. investigate the basic elements of the mind.
Bell Magendie Law 2 types of nerves: sensory and motor
Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies 5 types of sensory nerves and each nerve responds in its own char. way no matter how it is stimulated (ex. eye stimulation with pressure or light waves causes visual experience)
Adequate Stimulation Each of the 5 sense organs is maximally sensitive to one type of stimulation (ex. eye is most easily stimulated by light waves)
Phrenology Examination of bumps and depressions on the skull in order to determine the strengths and weaknesses of various mental faculties
Psychophysics study of relationship b/w physical and psychological events. Served as a critical trans. b/w the study of 1. the physio. and physical components of sensation 2. emergence of experimental psyc. itself
Just Noticeable Difference 1. gave 1st math formula for determining a systematic relationship b/w a physical stimuli and psyc. exp. which is important for psyc to become a science
Two Point Threshold Smallest distance b/w 2 points of stimulation at which the t2 points are experienced as two points rather than as one. The aesthesiometer can be used to demonstrate this
Absolute threshold smallest amount of stimulation that can be detected by an organism. The lowest intensity (from zero) at which a stimulus can be consciously detected. Used as a baseline for calculating the math for JND
Weber using the point threshold and JND, Weber was the first to demonstrate systematic relationships b/w physical stimulation and perception
Fechner expanded Weber's law by showing that in order for JND to vary arithmetically, the magnitude of a stimulus must increase geometrically
Physiological (Experimental) Psychology For Wundt, this was the study of the indiv. human consciousness by means of self observation. Physiological meant rigorous, scientific, experimental
Volition the act of willing, choosing, or deciding
Voluntarism belief that people could direct their attention by exercising their will
Introspection For Wundt, introspection was self observation to study the basic mental processes involved in immediate experience. He used it as the psychophysicists used it, as a technique to determine whether a person is experiencing a specific sensation or not.
Mental Chronometry the measurement of the time required to perform various mental acts
Mediate Experience Experience that is provided by various measuring devices and is therefore not immediate, direct experience
Immediate Experience Direct subjective experience as it occurs. Consciousness as it appears
Inspection an obs method through which physics (and other sci) studies the physical material world, w/o ref to the person. (pub observable and thus considered more objective). Titch def as obs of the external world
Introspection an obs method thru which psyc studies the world (and the contents of consciousness), with ref to the experiencing person. Titch def as obs of the internal world
Sensations occur whenever a sense organ is stimulated and the resulting impulse reaches the brain. Sensations come from external stimuli
Feelings All sensations are accompanied by feelings. Feelings can be thought of as sensations that arise from the body, from our emotions, and physio states. Feelings come from internal stimuli
Perception a passive proc goverend by the physical stimulation present, the anatomical makeup of the indiv. (i.e. nervous system), and the indiv. past experiences. My words= the passive combination of feelings and sensations
Apperception process by which attention is focus on certain mental events. The active, voluntary proc of focusing attention. What I voluntarily choose to attend to
Creative synthesis the arrangement and rearrangement of mental elements that can result from apperception. This represents an active mind
Volkerpsychologie Group or cultural psyc. Volkerpsychologie investigated higher mental processes. Could be used to study language, culture, religion, morals, art, etc. The two methods thru which these higher mental proc could be studied were histor. analysis and natur obs
Analysis Wundt's term to describe breaking up experience into its basic units
Synthesis Wundt's term to describe figuring out how the basic units get combined into the wholistic, meaningful masses of stuff that seem to occupy our experience
Heuristic Value helping to discover or learn; guiding or furthering investigation
Structuralism the school of psyc founded by Titchener, the goal of which was to describe the structure of the mind
Stimulus Error letting past experience influence an introspective report. To report on the stimulus object or what it means, rather than the sensations. (to name something or describe what it is used for rather than to just describe its basic elements)
Consciousness (Titchener) sum total of mental experience at any given moment (what we are aware of)
Mind (Titchener) the accumulated experiences of a lifetime
Created by: jmorris89
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards