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Pharm Unit 10

SPC Pharmacology Unit 10 Exam 4

Corticosteroids are? Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Where are the corticosteroids located? The Adrenal Glands (Upper surface of each kidney)
When stimulated what 3 hormones does the adrenal glands secretes? Glucocorticoid, Mineralcorticoid, Sex Hormones
Corticosteroids Regulate? Metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates Promotes production and storage of carbohydrates
Inflammation Promotes healing, can be adverse if intense or chronic duration
Corticosteroids Action Therapeutic, interferes with all stages of inflamation
3 main differences of corticosteroids 1. Cost 2. Side-effects 3. Potency
What are the effects on beta receptors? "Sympathomimetics" Prolongs activity, Enhances # of beta receptors (upregulation), Enhances the response to sympathomimetcs
Types of steroid application? PO, Topical, IM (Intramuscular), IV (Intravenous), Inhalation, Systemic
Steroid Pharmakonetics Effects not immediate, May Take hours, Min dose required, Dose and time interval is speculative
What is the onset for steroids? May take hours, not immediate
Alternate Day Therapy Helps to reduce side effects
Long term use of steroids Significant side-effects will occur, requires slow withdraw
Side effects of Systemic long term application Fat deposits, abnormal hair growth, muscle loss, peptic ulcers, thinning of the skin, diabetes, mood swings, osteoporosis
How is Metabolic Alkalosis a side effect of Systemic steroids? Promotes retention of HCO3 over long term use.
Systemic Administration (steroids) Therapeutic dose- causes euphoria Depression follows as therapeutic blood levels fall
Inhaled Administration (steroids) Side-effects are minimized, effects are more direct, dose is very low
Side-effects of Inhaled Steroids Oral Fungal Disease, Bronchospasm
When should inhaled steroids be thrown away? 45 days of use regardless of doses left
Recommendations for Inhalation steroids Large Volume Spacer Rinse after each administration short acting pre-bronchodialator therapy
Steroids Metabolism & Excretion Metabolizes in the liver Excretes in the kidneys
Pulmicort, Aerospan, Azmacort, Asmanex DPI Corticosteroids
Solu-Cortef, Solu-Medrol, Prednisone, Decradron Systemic Corticosteroids
Pulmicort & Rhinocort Small Volume Nebulizer
Prednisone Best PO (by mouth)
Solu-Medrol Elevates Blood sugar
Decadron Good for head injury
Solu-Cortef IV (Intravenous)
Maximal Dose of Inhalation Steroids adults < 800mcg/day children < 400mcg/day
Created by: Langhout1418