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AP Psych - Chapter 3

Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind

THC The major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects including mild hallucinations
Hallucinogens Psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
Barbiturates Drugs that depress central nervous activity, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
Alcohol Dependence (Popularly known as alcoholism). Alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal if suspended, and a drive to continue use
Opiates Opium and its derivatives such as ,morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporary lessening pain and anxiety
Depressants Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
Consciousness Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
Dual Processing The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.
Selective Attention The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.
Change Blindness Failing to notice changes in the environment.
Inattentional Blindness Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
Cognitive Neuroscience The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
Sleep Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness- as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
REM sleep Rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active.
Alpha Waves The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
Delta Waves The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
Latent Content According to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content)
Manifest Content According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content)
Dream A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Notable: hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.
Night Terrors A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
Narcolepsy A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
Insomnia Recurring problems in falling or staying sleep.
Sleep Apnea A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
REM rebound The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
Addiction Compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences
Tolerance The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
Psychological Dependence A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
Physical Dependence A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
Hallucinations False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
Withdrawal The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
Psychoactive Drug A chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods
Hypnosis A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
Disassociation A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.
Posthypnotic Suggestion A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
Blindsight A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it
Circadian Rhythm The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
Near-death Experience An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death; often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
LSD A powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide)
Stimulants Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, Ecstasy, and methamphetamine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
Nicotine A stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco
Ecstasy (MOMA) A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health ricks and longer-term harm to serotonin- producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
Amphetamines Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.
Methamphetamine A powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speedup-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
Stage 1 Alpha and theta waves produced in light sleep; hypnic jerk
Stage 2 Deeper sleep; sleep spindles (distinctive brain-wave activity of half second or longer)
Stage 3 Deeper sleep; Delta waves appear (very large and slow), breathing regular, BP falls
Stage 4 Deepest level of normal sleep; almost purely Delta waves (50%) - less blood flow to the brain
Stage 5 REM Sleep; very active stage; 20-25% of nights sleep; vivid dreams
State Theory Hypnosis is an altered state of conscious only accessible through calm suggestion
Role Theory The social role of "the hypnotized" comes with an unconscious drive to fulfill the expectations of that role
Disassociation Theory Being "hypnotized" distances a person from the responsibility of their actions and provides a socially expectable opportunity to allow suggestion to occur
Created by: azapien
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