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chapter 5, 8,7 vocab


Germinal stage the first prenatal stage of development, which begins at conception and last 2 weeks
Zygote single cell that results when a sperm fertilizes an egg
Embryo a developing organism from 2 weeks until about 8 weeks after conception
Embryonic stage the second prenatal stage, from 2 weeks to 8 weeks after conception, when all the major organs form.
Fetal stage the third prenatal stage, which begins with the formation of bone cells 8 weeks after conception and ends at birth
Neural migration the movement of neurons from one part of the fetal brain to their more permanent destination, this occurs during months 3-5 of the fetal stage
Prenatal programming the process by which events in the womb alter the development of physical and psychological health
Teratogens substance that can disrupt normal prenatal development and cause lifelong deficits
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder(FASD) a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure that causes multiple problems, notably brain damage
Temperament biologically based tendency to behave in particular ways from very early in life
Personality the unique and relatively enduring set of behaviors, feelings, thoughts, and motives that characterize an individual
Pruning the degradation of synapses and dying off of neurons that are not strengthened by experience
Sensorimotor stage piaget’s first stage of cognitive development (ages 0-2), when infants learn about the world by using their senses and moving their bodies
Object permanence the ability to realize that objects still exist when they are not being sensed
Preoperational stage the second major stage of cognitive development( ages 2-5), which begins with the emergence of symbolic thought
Animistic thinking a belief that inanimate objects are alive
Egocentrism viewing the world from one’s own perspective and not being capable of seeing things from another person’s perspective
Conservation the recognition that, when some properties(such as shape) of an object change, other properties(such as volume) remain constant
Concrete operational stage piaget’s third stage of cognitive development, which spans ages 6-11 during which the child can perform mental operations, such as reversing, on real objects or events
Formal operational stage piaget’s final stage of cognitive development, from age 11 or 12 through adulthood, when formal logic possible
Zone of proximal development the distance between what a child can learn alone and what that child can learn assisted by someone else, usually an adult
Theory of mind ideas and knowledge about how other peoples minds work
Preconventional level first level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning, focusing on avoiding punishment or maximizing rewards
Conventional level the second level in kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning, during which the person values caring, trust and relationship as well as the social order and lawfulness
Postconventional level third level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning, in which the person recognizes universal moral rules that may trump unjust or immoral local rules
Imprinting the rapid and innate learning of the characteristics of a caregiver very soon after birth
Attachment the strong emotional connection that develops early in life between infants and their caregivers
Separation anxiety the distress reaction babies show when they are separated from their primary caregivers( typically shown at around 9 month of age)
Securely attached an attachment style characterized by infants who will gradually explore new situations when the caregiver leaves and initiate contact when the caregiver returns after separation
Social referencing the ability to make use of social and emotional information from another person –especially a caregiver- in an uncertain situation
Emotional competence the ability to control emotions and to know when it is appropriate to express certain emotions
Adolescence the transition between childhood and early adulthood
Puberty the period when sexual maturation begins, it marks the beginning of adolescence
Menarche the first menstrual period
Spermarche first ejaculation
Emerging adult the transitional phase between adolescence and young adulthood, it includes ages 18-25
Young adult the development stages that usually happens by the mid 20’s when people complete the key developmental task of emerging adulthood
Intimacy as defined by erikson, the ability to fuse one’s identity with another’s without the fear of losing it.
Individuation the process of a persons personality becoming whole and full
Generativity a term Erik Erikson used to describe the process in adulthood of creating new ideas, products or people
Stagnation a situation in which an adult become more self-focused than oriented toward others and doe not contribute in a productive way to society or family
Fluid intelligence raw mental ability, pattern recognition, and abstract reasoning that can be applied to a problem one has never confronted before
Crystallized intelligence the kind of knowledge that one gains from experience and learning, education, and practice
Dementia a loss of mental function, in which many cognitive process are impaired such as the ability to remember, reason, solve problems, make decisions and use language
Alzheimer’s disease a degenerative disease marked by progressive cognitive decline and characterized by a collection of symptoms, including confusion, memory los, mood swings, and eventually loss of physical function
Learning an enduring change in behavior that occurs with experience
Association the process by which two pieces of information from the environment are repeatedly linked so that we begin to connect them in our minds
Conditioning a from of association learning in which behavior are triggered by association with events in the environment
Classic conditioning a form of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus become associated with a stimulus to which one has an automatic, inborn response
Unconditioned response (UCR) the natural automatic, inborn, reaction to a stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus(UCS) environmental input that always produced the same unlearned response
Conditioned stimulus(CS) a previously natural input that an organism learns to associate with a UCS
Conditioned response(CR) a behavior that an organism learns to perform when presented
Stimulus generalization extension of the association between UCS and CS to include a broad array of similar stimuli
Stimulus discrimination restriction of a CR( such as salivation) only to exactly the CS to which it was conditioned
Extinction the weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response in the absence of the pairing of UCS and CS
Spontaneous recovery the sudden reappearance of an extinguished response
Law of effect the consequences of a behavior increase or decrease the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
Operant conditioning the process of changing behavior by manipulating the consequences of that behavior
Reinforce an internal or external event that increases the frequency of a behavior
Primary reinforce innate, unlearned reinforce that satisfy biological needs( such as water, food)
Secondary( conditioned) reinforce reinforces that are learned by association, usually via classical conditioning( such as money, grades, peer approval)
Positive reinforcement the presentation or addition of a stimulus after a behavior occurs that increases how often that behavior will occur
Negative reinforcement the removal of a stimulus after a behavior to increase the frequency of that behavior
Punishment a stimulus that decrease the frequency of a behavior
Positive punishment the addition of a stimulus that decreases behavior
Negative punishment the removal of a stimulus to decrease behavior
Skinner box a simple chamber used for the operant conditioning of small animals
Shaping the reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired behavior
Schedules of reinforcement patterns of intermittent reinforcement distinguished by whether reinforcement occurs after a set number response or after a certain amount of time has passed since the last reinforcement
Continuous reinforcement reinforcement of a behavior every time it occurs
Intermittent reinforcement reinforcement of a behavior- but not after every response
Fixed-ratio(FR) schedule a pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which reinforcement follows a set number of responses
Variable- ration(VR) schedule a pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which the number of responses needed for reinforcement changes
Fixed-interval (FI) schedule a pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which responses are always reinforced after a set period of time has passed
Variable- interval(VI) schedule A pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which responses are reinforced after time periods of different durations have passed
Conditioned taste aversion the learned avoidance of a particular taste or food
Instinctive drift learned behavior that shifts toward instinctive, unlearned behavior tendencies
Biological constraint model a view on learning which proposes that some behavior are inherently more likely to be learned than others
Latent learning learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement and is not demonstrated until later, when reinforcement occurs
Enactive learning learning by doing so
Observational learning learning by watching the behavior of others
Social learning theory a description of the kind of learning that occurs when we model or imitate the behavior of others
Modeling the imitation of behaviors performed by others
Ethology the scientific study of animal behavior
Behavior modification principles of operant conditioning used to change behavior
Memory the ability to store and use information; also the store of what has been learned and membered
Three-stage model of memory the classification of memories based on duration as sensory, short-term, and long-term
Sensory memory the part memory that holds information in its original sensory form for a very brief period of time, usually about half a second or less
Short-term memory the part of memory that temporarily(2-30 seconds) stores a limited amount of information before it is either transferred to long- term storage or forgotten
Long-term memory the part of memory that has the capacity to store a vast amount of information for as little as 30 seconds and as long as a lifetime
Working memory the part of memory required to attend to and solve a problem at hand: oftern used interchangeably with short-term memory
Chunking the process of breaking down a list of items to be remembered into a smaller set of meaningful units
Rehearsal the process of repeatedly practicing material, so that it enters long memory
Serial position effect the tendency to have better recall for items in a list according to their position in the list
Implicit memory the type of memory made up of knowledge based on previous experience, such as skills we perform automatically once we have mastered them;it resides outside conscious awareness
Procedural memory the type of memory made up of implicit knowledge for almost any behavior or physical skill we have learned
Priming A kind of implicit memory that arises when recall is improved by earlier exposure to the same or similar stimuli
Explicit memory knowledge that consist of the conscious recall of facts and events; also know as declarative memory
Semantic memory the form of memory that recalls facts and generally knowledge , such as what we learn in school
Episodic memory the form of memory that recalls the experiences we have had
Encoding the process by which the brain attends to, takes in, and integrates new information; he first stage of long-term memory formation
Automatic processing encoding of information that occurs with little effort or conscious attention to the task
Effortful processing encoding of information that occurs with careful attention and conscious effort
Levels of processing the concept that, the more deeply people encode information, the better they will recall
Mnemonic device a method, such as a rhyme or an acronym, devised to help people remember information
Consolidation the process of ebstablishing, stabilizing, or solidifying a memory; the second stage of long- term memory formation
Storage the retention of memory over time; the third stage of long term memory formation
Hierarchies a way of organzing related pieces of information from the most specific
False memories memories for events that never happened but were suggested by someone or something
Recovered memory a memory supposedly from a real event, it was encoded and stored but not retrieved for a long period of time, until a later event bring it suddenly to consciousness
Created by: Brightonvball