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Human Dev. 2

QuestionAnswer
Reflexes unlearned responses to specific forms of stimulation which aid in survival
Examples of reflexes rooting, sucking, eye blink, stepping, palmar grasp, withdrawal
APGAR measures 5 vital signs: appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration
NBAS (neonatal behavioral assessment scale) used for newborns to 24 months to provide a detailed portrait of the baby’s behavioral repertoire, including autonomic, motor, state and social systems
Newborn states Alert inactivity, waking activity (give tummy time), sleeping, crying
Temperament Consistent style of behavior or reaction
Surgency/extroversion the degree to which a child is generally content, vocal and seeks stimulation
Negative affect the extent to which a child is angry, fearful, frustrated, shy or not easily soothed
Effortful control the extent to which a child can focus attention, not easily distracted or can inhibit responses
6 months Introduction of solid foods recommended
Cell body contains the machinery that keeps the neuron alive
Dendrites receive information
Receptor cells Fit with only one neurotransmitter on end of dendrite
Positive charge Charge inside cell body until message is received
Reuptake Pulls unused neurons from synapse back to axon terminal
Sensation Any stimuli that affects the senses
Action potential Entire process that takes place at neuron
Axon tube that transports impulses away from the body
Terminal buttons release neurotransmitters (electrochemical messengers) that carry information from one neuron to the next
neural plate Forms after 3 weeks, later folds to make a tube that becomes the brain and spinal cord
Myelin sheath fatty wrap that speeds neural transmitters; acquired in 4th month
Synaptic pruning Synaptic connections that are used are strengthened while those that are not used die
Central nervous system Spinal cord and brain
Peripheral nervous system Somatic and autonomic
Experience expectant brain growth process by which the wiring of the brain is organized on experiences that are common to most humans (light, sound, touch)
Experience dependent brain growth process by which the wiring of the brain is organized based on individual experiences (music)
Dynamic systems theory learning to walk involves many distinct skills that are organized and reorganized over time to meet specific goals (Sit, crawl, walk)
Perception The process by which the brain receives, selects, modifies and organizes nerve impulses
Vision poor at birth but 20/20 by age 1; color vision complete by 3 months; depth perception by 6 months (visual cliff); innately attracted to face
Self recognition Most infants recognize themselves by 15 months
Self awareness emerges between 18 and 24 months
Infantile amnesia Children can’t remember before age 3
Theory of mind a naïve understanding of the relationship between the mind and behavior; develops between 2-5
Piaget’s theory children understand the world with schemes
Assimilation occurs when new experiences are readily incorporated into existing schemes; learning by putting things in mouth (scheme)
Accommodation occurs when schemes are modified based on experiences; child comes across something too big to put in mouth, must come up with a new “scheme” for learning about the object
Disequilibrium When a child hasn’t adapted to the new way of learning
Piaget’s theory proposes 4 stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor (0-2), preoperational (2-7), concrete operational (7-11), formal operations (11+)
Sensorimotor thinking Infants move from reflexes to deliberate, intentional behavior by 8 months of age; around 12 months old, they become active experimenters
Object permanence the understanding that objects still exist, even when not in sight. Full understanding not complete until 18 months
Preoperational thinking View of the world is egocentric
Centration Children have a narrowly focused thought process
Conservation of liquids Tall slim glass of milk, and short wide glass of milk
Conservation of numbers Child pays attention to length of rows and not number in each row
Conservation of weight and length Play-doh balls rolled then squished
Animism children give life like qualities to inanimate objects
Information processing theory The idea that the human mind works like a computer; continuous cognitive development
Mental hardware refers to the mental and neural structures of the brain that allow the mind to operate
Mental software refers to the mental programs that we use to perform particular tasks
Paying attention the process that determines which sensory information receives additional processing
Orienting response occurs when we see a strong unfamiliar stimulus. A baby will startle, fix his eyes on it, and will experience changes in heart rate and brainwave activity
Habituation takes place when we no longer pay attention to the stimulus
Autobiographical memory a person’s memory of the significant events and experiences of their own lives, originates in preschool years
Behaviorism learning theory pioneered by BF Skinner, showed that reinforcements and punishments are influential on behavior
Reinforcement strengthening of a response that is followed by a reinforcing consequence
Punishment weakening of a response that is followed by an aversive consequence
Extinction no longer rewarding or reinforcing a behavior that has previously been reinforced.
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory children are apprentices in society learning from more skilled experts.
zone of proximal development the difference between what a child can do alone and what they can do with assistance
2 years Age that children learn to count
One to one principle there must be one and only one number name for each object
Stable order principle number names must be counted in the same order (1,3,5,4
Cardinality the last number named is the total number of objects. (1,3,5,4)
Phonemes unique sounds blended together to form words
Infant directed speech when adults speak in a slower tone with variation in pitch and loudness
Cooing Vowel-like sounds produced at 2 months
Babbling speech like sound that has no meaning (3-4 months)
8-11 months babbling begins to sound more like real speech
1 year First words - onset begins when the child realizes words are symbols
Fast mapping most children learn meanings of words too rapidly for them to consider all plausible meanings systematically (may use words too narrowly as a result)
Underextension using a word too narrowly
Overextension using a word too broadly
Referential learning style vocabulary mainly consists of words that name objects, people or actions.
Expressive learning style vocabulary includes some names but also social phrases and feelings
Telegraphic speech 2 words sentences together
Grammatical morphemes word endings are added by 18 months
Overregularization Children apply the morpheme endings incorrectly
Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Each stage the child faces a crisis that must be overcome for healthy development
trust and mistrust develop a sense of hope and openness to experience tempered by wariness that discomfort or danger may arise (0-1)
Autonomy and shame Combine to produce will
initiative and guilt must be balanced to produce a sense of purpose; wanting it my way v getting along with others (3-5)
4 stages in the growth of attachment - John Bowlby Preattachment, attachment in the making, true attachment, reciprocal relationships
Mary Ainsworth pioneered a study of attachment relationships using a procedure called the Strange Situation Test
Secure attachment (60-65 % of American babies) Child explores when mom is there; engages with stranger but is upset when mom leaves; happy to see mom return
Avoidant attachment (20% of American babies) Child ignores mom; doesn’t explore regardless of who’s there; could be neglect or shy
Resistant attachment (10-15 % of American babies) Child showed distress even before separation; goes to mom and is angry; could be abuse or mom leaves a lot
Disorganized attachment (5-10%) Shows signs of all attachment; usually more fearful or detached; mother could be depressed
Internal working model a set of expectations about parents’ availability and responsiveness
Basic emotions joy, anger, surprise, fear, interest, distress, disgust and sadness (almost universal)
3 components of basic emotions a subjective feeling, a physiological change and an overt behavior
Subjective feeling Not everyone has the same experiences, so emotions will differ; eg. Anger – mild annoyance to blind rage
Physiological change Sympathetic nervous system produces fight or flight response; eg. Sweaty palms, racing heartbeat
Amygdala Brain center for fear, hunger, thirst, other emotions
Overt behavior Actual expression of emotion; eg. smile
8-9 months infants experience all basic emotions
2-3 months infants can smile
4-6 months Anger develops
6 months Fear and stranger wariness develop
18-24 months Complex emotions like guilt, embarrassment, pride emerge
Social referencing looking to a caregiver for cues to interpret the situation, infants use to direct their behavior
4-6 months Emotion regulation begins
Parallel play toddlers play alone but are interested in what others nearby are doing
Simple social play children engage in similar activities and interact
Cooperative play play is organized around a theme and children play roles associated with that theme
Make believe play promotes cognitive development and allows children to explore topics that may frighten them
Solitary play usually normal but some forms are a sign that a child is uneasy interacting with others (wandering aimlessly or standing back watching others)
Prosocial behavior Any behavior that is meant to help others; must be taught
Altruism behavior driven by the responsibility toward others, in which individuals do not benefit directly from the action
Gender stereotypes beliefs about males and females that may or may not be true
Gender labeling by age 2 or 3 a child can simply label him/herself as a boy or girl
Gender stability during preschool years, children understand that sex is stable; boys grow to be men, girls grow to be women
Gender constancy between 4-7 a child understands that gender does not change over situations and time or according to personal wishes
Gender schema theory children first decide if an object, activity or behavior is associated with males or females and then use this information to decide if they should learn more about the object, activity or behavior
Created by: Brana